Daphne maxwell reid photos

Not to be confused with .

For other uses, see .

Kodak cartridge alongside film camera. The shift from film to digital greatly affected Kodak's business.

The Eastman Kodak Company (referred to simply as Kodak) is an American technology that produces imaging products with its historic basis on photography. The company is headquartered in , and is incorporated in .Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film. It is best known for products.

Kodak was founded by and on September 4, 1888. During most of the , Kodak held a dominant position in photographic film. The company's ubiquity was such that its "" entered the common lexicon to describe a personal event that was demanded to be recorded for posterity.Kodak began to struggle financially in the late 1990s, as a result of the decline in sales of photographic film and its slowness in transitioning to . As a part of a turnaround strategy, Kodak began to focus on digital photography and , and attempted to generate revenues through aggressive .

In January 2012, Kodak filed for bankruptcy protection in the .

In February 2012, Kodak announced that it would stop making digital cameras, pocket video cameras and digital picture frames and focus on the corporate digital imaging market. Digital cameras are still sold under the Kodak brand by JK Imaging Ltd thanks to an agreement with Kodak.

In August 2012, Kodak announced its intention to sell its , commercial scanners and kiosk operations, as a measure to emerge from bankruptcy, but not its operations. In January 2013, the Court approved financing for Kodak to emerge from bankruptcy by mid 2013.Kodak sold many of its patents for approximately 5,000,000 to a group of companies (including , Google, Facebook, , , , and ) under the names and . On September 3, 2013, the company emerged from bankruptcy having shed its large legacy liabilities and exited several businesses. Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging are now part of , a separate company owned by the UK-based Kodak Pension Plan.



The Kodak factory and main office in , circa 1910

From the company's founding by in 1888, Kodak followed the of selling inexpensive cameras and making large margins from consumables – film, chemicals and paper. As late as 1976, Kodak commanded 90% of film sales and 85% of camera sales in the U.S.

Rivalry with Fujifilm[]

Japanese competitor entered the U.S. market (via Fuji Photo Film U.S.A.) with lower-priced film and supplies, but Kodak did not believe that American consumers would ever desert its brand.Kodak passed on the opportunity to become the official film of the ; Fuji won these sponsorship rights, which gave it a permanent foothold in the marketplace. Fuji opened a film plant in the U.S., and its aggressive marketing and price cutting began taking market share from Kodak. Fuji went from a 10% share in the early 1990s to 17% in 1997. Fuji also made headway into the professional market with specialty transparency films such as and , which competed successfully with Kodak's signature professional product, , but used the more economical and common E-6 processing machines which were standard in most processing labs, rather than the dedicated machines required by Kodachrome. Fuji's films soon also found a competitive edge in higher-speed negative films, with a tighter grain structure.

In May 1995, Kodak filed a petition with the US Commerce Department under section 301 of the Commerce Act arguing that its poor performance in the Japanese market was a direct result of unfair practices adopted by Fuji. The complaint was lodged by the United States with the . On January 30, 1998, the WTO announced a "sweeping rejection of Kodak's complaints" about the film market in Japan. Kodak's financial results for the year ending December 1997 showed that company's revenues dropped from .97 billion in 1996 to .36 billion in 1997, a fall of more than 10%; its net earnings went from .29 billion to just million for the same period. Kodak's market share declined from 80.1% to 74.7% in the United States, a one-year drop of five percentage points that had observers suggesting that Kodak was slow to react to changes and underestimated its rivals.

Although from the 1970s both Fuji and Kodak recognized the upcoming threat of digital photography, and although both sought diversification as a mitigation strategy, Fuji was more successful at diversification.

Shift to digital[]

The Kodak 'K' logo was introduced in 1971. The version seen here – with the 'Kodak' name in a more modern – was used from 1987 until the logo's discontinuation in 2006. A revised version was reintroduced in 2016. Kodak logo from 2006 to 2016

Although Kodak a digital camera in 1975, the first of its kind, the product was dropped for fear it would threaten Kodak's photographic film business. In the 1990s, Kodak planned a decade-long journey to move to digital technology. CEO reached out[] to Microsoft and other new consumer merchandisers. pioneering consumer digital cameras, introduced in 1994, had the Apple label but were produced by Kodak. The and launched in 1996. Overall, though, there was little implementation of the new digital strategy. Kodak's core business faced no pressure from competing technologies, and as Kodak executives could not fathom a world without traditional film there was little incentive to deviate from that course. Consumers gradually switched to the digital offering from companies such as Sony. In 2001 film sales dropped, which was attributed by Kodak to the financial shocks caused by the . Executives hoped that Kodak might be able to slow the shift to digital through aggressive marketing.

Under , Fisher's successor as CEO, Kodak made its move in the digital camera market, with its EasyShare family of digital cameras. Kodak spent tremendous resources studying customer behavior, finding out that women in particular loved taking digital photos but were frustrated in moving them to their computers. This key unmet consumer need became a major opportunity. Once Kodak got its product development machine started, it released a wide range of products which made it easy to share photos via PCs. One of their key innovations was a printer dock, where consumers could insert their cameras into this compact device, press a button, and watch their photos roll out. By 2005, Kodak ranked No. 1 in the U.S. in digital camera sales that surged 40% to .7 billion.

Despite the high growth, Kodak failed to anticipate how fast digital cameras became commodities, with low profit margins, as more companies entered the market in the mid-2000s. In 2001 Kodak held the No. 2 spot in U.S. digital camera sales (behind ) but it lost on every camera sold, while there was also a dispute between employees from its digital and film divisions. The film business, where Kodak enjoyed high profit margins, fell 18% in 2005. The combination of these two factors resulted in disappointing profits overall. Its digital cameras soon became undercut by Asian competitors that could produce their offerings more cheaply. Kodak had a 27% market-leading share in 1999, that dwindled to 15% by 2003. In 2007 Kodak was No. 4 in U.S. digital camera sales with a 9.6% share, and by 2010 it held 7% in seventh place behind , , and others, according to research firm IDC. Also an ever-smaller percentage of digital pictures were being taken on dedicated digital cameras, being gradually displaced in the late 2000s by cameras on cellphones, , and .

New strategy[]

Kodak then began a strategy shift: Previously Kodak had done everything in-house, but CEO Antonio Pérez shut down film factories and eliminated 27,000 jobs as it outsourced its manufacturing. Pérez invested heavily in digital technologies and new services that capitalized on its technology innovation to boost profit margins. He also spent hundreds of millions of dollars to build up a high-margin printer ink business to replace shriveling film sales. Kodak's ink strategy rejected the used by the dominant market leader in that Kodak's printers were expensive but the ink was cheaper. As of 2011, these new lines of inkjet printers were said to be on verge of turning a profit, although some analysts were skeptical as printouts had been replaced gradually by electronic copies on computers, tablets, and smartphones. Home photograph printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software, and packaging were viewed as the company's new core businesses, with sales from those four businesses projected to double to nearly billion in revenue in 2013 and account for 25% of all sales. However, while Kodak named home printers as a core business as late as August 2012, at the end of September declining sales forced Kodak to announce an exit from the consumer inkjet market.

Kodak has also turned to in order to generate revenue. In 2010, it received 8 million from patent licensing that included a settlement with .

In 2011, despite the turnaround progress, Kodak rapidly used up its cash reserves, stoking fears of bankruptcy; it had 7 million in cash in June 2011, down from .6 billion in January 2001. In 2011, Kodak reportedly explored selling off or licensing its vast portfolio of patents in order to stave off bankruptcy. By January 2012, analysts suggested that the company could enter bankruptcy followed by an auction of its patents, as it was reported to be in talks with to provide . This was confirmed on January 19, 2012, when the company filed for bankruptcy protection and obtained a 0 million, 18-month credit facility from Citigroup to enable it to continue operations. Under the terms of its bankruptcy protection, Kodak had a deadline of February 15, 2013 to produce a reorganization plan.

In April 2013, Kodak showed its first camera, to be manufactured by .

On September 3, 2013, Kodak announced that it emerged from bankruptcy as a technology company focused on imaging for business. Its main business segments are Digital Printing & Enterprise and Graphics, Entertainment & Commercial Films.

On March 12, 2014, Kodak announced that had been named as chief executive officer and a member of its board of directors.

On January 1, 2015, Kodak announced a new five business division structure; Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film.



An original Kodak camera, complete with box, camera, case, felt lens plug, manual, memorandum and viewfinder card An advertisement from The Photographic Herald and Amateur Sportsman (November 1889) Advertisement for a folding "pocket" Kodak camera (August 1900)
  • April 1880: George Eastman leased the third floor of a building on State Street in Rochester N.Y. and began the commercial manufacture of dry plates.
  • January 1, 1881: Eastman and businessman Henry A. Strong formed a partnership called the Eastman Dry Plate Company. Eastman resigned his position at the Rochester Savings Bank in order to work full-time at the Eastman Dry Plate Company.
  • 1884: The Eastman-Strong partnership was dissolved and the Eastman Dry Plate and Film Company formed with 14 shareowners. The Eastman Dry Plate Company was responsible for the first cameras suitable for non expert use.
  • 1885: bought David Houston's patents for and developed them further. These were the basis for the invention of motion picture film, as used by early filmmakers and .
  • September 4, 1888: Eastman registered the trademark Kodak.
  • 1888: The first model of the Kodak camera appeared. It took round pictures 6.4 cm (2.5 in) in diameter, was of the type, and carried a roll of film enough for 100 exposures. Its invention practically marked the advent of , as before that time both apparatus and processes were too burdensome to classify photography as recreation. The used in the first model of the Kodak camera had a paper base but was soon superseded by a film with a base, a practical transparent flexible film. The first films had to be loaded into the camera and unloaded in the dark room, but the film cartridge system with its protecting strip of opaque paper made it possible to load and unload the camera in ordinary light. The Kodak Developing Machine (1900) and its simplified successor, the Kodak Film Tank, provided the means for daylight development of film, making the dark room unnecessary for any of the operations of amateur photography. The earlier types of the Kodak cameras were of the and of fixed focus, and as various sizes were added, devices for focusing the lenses were incorporated.
  • 1889: The Eastman Company was formed.
  • 1891: began to produce a second line of cameras, the Ordinary range.
  • 1892: It was renamed the Eastman Kodak Company in 1892. Eastman Kodak Company of New York was organized. He coined the advertising slogan, "." The Kodak company thereby attained its name from the first simple roll film cameras produced by Eastman Dry Plate Company, known as the "Kodak" in its product line.
  • Early 1890s: The first folding Kodak cameras were introduced. These were equipped with folding bellows that permitted much greater compactness.
  • 1895: The first pocket Kodak camera, the Pocket Kodak, was introduced. It was of the box form type, slipping easily into an ordinary coat pocket, and producing negatives 1½ x 2 inches.
  • 1897: The first folding pocket Kodak camera was introduced, and was mentioned in the novel , published the same year.
  • 1898: George Eastman purchased the patent for Velox photographic paper from for ,000,000. After this time, Velox paper was then sold by Eastman Kodak.


Eastman Kodak Non Curling 116 Film (Expired: 1925)
  • 1900: The camera was introduced, creating a new mass market for photography.
  • 1901: The present company, Eastman Kodak Company of New Jersey, was formed under the laws of that state. Eventually, the business in Jamestown was moved in its entirety to Rochester, and the plants in Jamestown were demolished.
  • By 1920: An “” provided a means for recording data on the margin of the negative at the time of exposure. This feature was supplied on all Kodak cameras with the exception of a box camera designed for making panoramic pictures and was discontinued in 1932.
  • 1920: Tennessee Eastman was founded as a wholly owned subsidiary. The company's primary purpose was the manufacture of chemicals, such as , needed for Kodak's film photography products.
  • 1930: Eastman Kodak Company was added to the index on July 18, 1930. The company remained listed as one of the DJIA companies for the next 74 years, ending in 2004.
Kodak Camera Center, Tennessee, ca. 1930-1945
  • 1932: George Eastman dies at age 77, taking his own life with a gun shot. The suicide note he leaves behind reads, "My work is done. Why wait?"[]
Kodachrome II - Film for color slides
  • 1935: Kodak introduced , a color reversal stock for movie and slide film.
  • 1936: Kodak branches out into manufacture of .
  • 1940-1944: Eastman Kodak ranked 62nd among United States corporations in the value of military production contracts.
  • 1934-1956: Kodak introduces the Retina Series 35mm Camera Kodak Retina Series Cameras were produced between 1949 until 1956. It also had the KodaChrome Technology
  • 1959: Kodak introduced the Starmatic camera, the first automatic camera, which sold 10 million units over the next five years.
  • 1963: Kodak introduced the camera, an inexpensive, easy-to-load, .
  • 1970: Kodak scientists disclose the continuous wave tunable . This becomes a product for several high-tech companies but not at Kodak.
  • 1975: , then an electrical engineer at Kodak, invented a .
  • 1976: The color filter array (CFA) was invented by Eastman Kodak researcher Bryce Bayer. The order in which dyes are placed on an image sensor photosite is still in use today. The basic technology is still the most commonly used of its kind to date.
  • 1976: Kodak introduced the first Kodamatic, instant picture cameras, using a similar film and technology to that of the Polaroid company.
  • 1976: The company sold 90% of the photographic film in the US along with 85% of the cameras.
  • 1978: Kodak introduces the Ektachem clinical chemistry testing system. The system employs dry film technology, and within 5 years was being used by most hospitals in the country.
  • 1981: Kodak was sued by for infringement of its Instant Picture patents. The suit ran for five years, the court finally finding in favour of Polaroid in 1986.
  • 1982: Kodak launched the film format for consumer cameras. The format ultimately proved unpopular and was later discontinued.
  • 1986: Kodak scientists created the world's first sensor, capable of recording 1.4 million pixels and producing a photo-quality 12.5 cm × 17.5 cm (4.9 in × 6.9 in) print.
  • 1987: , a senior research associate, and his colleague, Steven Van Slyke, developed the first multi-layer OLEDs at the Kodak Research Laboratories, for which he later became a Fellow of the Society for Information Display (SID)
  • 1988: Kodak buys for .1 Billion
  • 1988: Kodak scientists introduce the tetramethyl also used in OLED devices. These become a successful product until the line of fine chemicals is sold.
  • 1991: The Kodak Professional Digital Camera System or , the first commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. A customized camera back bearing the digital image sensor was mounted on a body and released by Kodak in May; the company had previously shown the camera at in 1990.
  • 1993: , a Kodak subsidiary founded by George Eastman in 1920 to supply Kodak's chemical needs, was spun off as a separate corporation. Eastman Chemical became a company in its own right.
  • 1994: , a consumer digital camera was debuted by Apple Computer. Some models were manufactured by Kodak.


  • 2003: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare LS633 Digital Camera, the first camera to feature an display, and the Kodak EasyShare Printer Dock 6000, the world's first printer-and-camera dock combination.
  • November 2003: Kodak acquired the -based company Algotec Systems, a developer of advanced (PACS), which enable radiology departments to digitally manage and store medical images and information.
  • January 2004: Kodak announced that it would stop selling traditional film cameras in Europe and North America, and cut up to 15,000 jobs (around a fifth of its total workforce at the time).
  • April 8, 2004: Kodak was delisted from the index, having been a constituent for 74 consecutive years.
  • May 2004: Kodak signed an exclusive long-term agreement with Media, licensing the Kodak brand for use on digital memory cards designed, manufactured, sold, and distributed by Lexar.
  • January 2005: The Kodak EasyShare-One Digital Camera, the world’s first Wi-Fi consumer digital camera capable of sending pictures by email, was unveiled at the 2005 CES.
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the -based company OREX Computed Radiography, a provider of compact computed radiography systems that enable medical practitioners to acquire patient x-ray images digitally.
  • January 2005: Kodak acquired the , British Columbia, Canada-based company .
  • January 2006: Kodak unveiled the Dual Lens Digital Camera, the world's first dual-lens digital still camera and smallest ultra-wide-angle optical zoom digital camera, at the . Using proprietary Kodak Retina Dual Lens technology, the V570 wrapped an ultra-wide angle lens (23 mm) and a second optical zoom lens (39 – 117 mm) into a body less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.
  • April 2006: Kodak introduced the Kodak EasyShare V610 Dual Lens Digital Camera, at that time the world’s smallest 10× (38–380 mm) optical zoom camera at less than 2.5 cm (an inch) thick.
  • August 1, 2006: Kodak agreed to divest its digital camera manufacturing operations to , including assembly, production and testing. As part of the sale it was agreed that Flextronics would manufacture and distribute consumer digital cameras for Kodak, and conduct some design and development functions for it. Kodak kept high-level digital camera design in house, continued to conduct research and development in digital still cameras, and retained all intellectual property and patents. Approximately 550 Kodak personnel transferred to Flextronics.
  • January 10, 2007: Kodak agreed to sell Kodak Health Group to for .35 billion in cash, and up to 0 million in additional future payments if Onex achieved specified returns on the acquisition. The sale was completed May 1.Kodak used part of the proceeds to fully repay its approximately .15 billion of secured term debt. Around 8,100 employees transferred to Onex, and Kodak Health Group was renamed . Kodak Health Group had revenue of .54 billion for the 12 months to September 30, 2006.
  • April 19, 2007: Kodak announced an agreement to sell its light management films business, which produced films designed to improve the brightness and efficiency of liquid crystal displays, to . The divested business comprised 125 workers. As part of the transaction Rohm and Haas agreed to license technology and purchase equipment from Kodak, and lease Building 318 at . The sale price was not disclosed.
  • May 25, 2007: Kodak announced a cross-licensing agreement with and its affiliate Chi Mei EL (CMEL), enabling CMEL to use Kodak technology for active matrix OLED modules in a variety of small to medium size display applications.
  • June 14, 2007: Kodak announced a two to fourfold increase in sensitivity to light (from one to two ) compared to current sensor designs. This design was a departure from the classic "" by adding or “clear” pixels to the RGB elements on the sensor array. Since these pixels are sensitive to all wavelengths of visible light, they collect a significantly higher proportion of the light striking the sensor. In combination with advanced Kodak software algorithms optimized for these new patterns, photographers benefited from an increase in photographic speed (improving performance in low light), faster shutter speeds (reducing motion blur for moving subjects), and smaller pixels (higher resolutions in a given optical format) while retaining performance. The technology was credited to Kodak scientists John Compton and John Hamilton.
  • September 4, 2007: Kodak announced a five-year extension of its partnership with Lexar Media.
  • November 2008: Kodak released the Kodak Theatre HD Player, allowing photos and videos stored on a computer to be displayed on an HDTV. Kodak licensed technology from for the interface and pointer, which allowed a user to control the player with gestures.
  • January 2009: Kodak posted a 7 million fourth-quarter loss and announced plans to cut up to 4,500 jobs.
  • June 22, 2009: Kodak announced that it would cease selling color film by the end of 2009, ending 74 years of production, after a dramatic decline in sales.
  • December 4, 2009: Kodak sold its (OLED) business unit to , resulting in the lay-off of 60 people.


  • December 2010: removed Kodak from its index.
  • September 2011: Kodak hired law firm Jones Day for restructuring advice and its stock dropped to an all-time low of

    Concept of GST

    Historical reforms
    Goods and Services Tax (GST) is a historical proposed system of indirect taxation in India merging most of the existing indirect taxes into unified system of taxation. It was introduced as The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act 2016. The GST is administered & governed by GST Council and its Chairman is Union Finance Minister of India Arun Jaitley.
    Replacing all Central & State Indirect Taxes
    GST would be a comprehensive indirect tax on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services throughout India, to replace taxes levied by the Central and State Governments.
    The GST will subsume 17 Central as well as State levies including Excise, Service Tax, CVD, SAD, VAT, CST, Octroi, Purchase Tax, Entertainment Tax, Luxury Tax and various surcharges and cesses making the movement of goods cheaper and seamless across a market holding 1.3 billion consumers, about four times the U.S. population. It would be far simpler than the current system, where a good is taxed multiple times at different rates. The underlying principle is to tax goods at the point of consumption rather than production.
    No double taxation
    With the implementation of GST, consumers will not be subjected to double taxation. All taxes that are levied while purchasing good will include both the Central Government’s taxes as well as the State Government’s taxes. The move would deter State Governments from indiscriminately increasing taxes fearing public backlash.
    GDP Booster
    GST can boost economic growth by as much as 2 percentage points, according to Finance Minister Arun Jaitley. Greater tax compliance has the potential to boost revenues for the government.
    Exclusions from GST
    Taxes which are not subsumed under GST are Basic Custom Duty, Tobacco Products (Partly), Petroleum Products (Petroleum Crude, High Speed Diesel, Motor Spirit, Natural Gas, and Aviation Turbine Fuel), Electricity and Power, Real Estate-Stamp Duty, Clean Energy Cess, Alcohol for human consumption. The Central tax on the supply of petroleum crude, high speed diesel, motor spirit (commonly known as petrol), natural gas and aviation turbine fuel shall be levied with effect from such date as may be notified by the Government on the recommendations of the Council.
    Advent of Laws
    Four crucial GST Bills i.e. CGST (for Intra-State transactions), IGST (For Inter- State transactions), UTGST (For Intra-State Transactions in UTs) and Compensation Bill (For compensation of loss from GST by Centre to State) have been passed in Lok Sabha on 29-Mar- 17.The Council has issued 9 Goods and Services Tax Rules viz. Composition Rules, Valuation Rules, Transition Rules, Input Tax Credit Rules, Registration Rules, Invoice Rules, Payment Rules, Return Rules and Refund Rules for public comments. States will now take up the SGST Bills in in their respective assemblies for adoption, which would be more or less the replica of the CGST and UTGST Bills
    Rate Structure
    Expected Rate Structure under GST-To be finalized in Coming Council Meetings Slab Goods Examples 0% Exemption Items goods of mass consumption viz. food grains, milk etc. 5% Essential items Goods which are exempt from Excise duty and attract VAT @5% such as edible oil, spices, tea, coffee, etc. 12% Lower Standard rate Where current tax incidence between 9% to 15% such as computers, processed food, etc 18% Higher Standard rate Where current tax incidence between 15% to 21% such as soaps, oils, shaving sticks, etc. 28% Luxury/ white goods Generally, goods presently attracting 12.5% excise duty and 14.5% VAT 28% + Cesses Aerated drinks, pan masala, luxury cars, tobacco products and other products Goods presently attracting taxes in the range of 40% - 60% Services–Likely to have three rates i.e. basic rate of 12%, standard rate of 18% and luxury rate of 28%
    All eyes are now on fitment of various goods and services in these tax slabs, which will be taken up by the GST Council in its next meetings for the new indirect tax system to be rolled out from July 1.
    Challenges ahead
    • Fitment of rates
    • Administration
    • IT Infrastructure
    • Fear of Inflation
    • Competency of Laws
    • Dispute Resolutions
    • Rural India-a big threat
    • Place of taxation
    • Monitoring inter-State supplies
    • Political hurdles

    Opportunities in GST

    GST regime will be bursting up with Ocean of Opportunities for all Professionals, Manager Accounts, Entrepreneurs, CEOs, CFOs, Revenue Officials, CA Final Students and Journalists. We can only say that “Today’s Learning will be Tomorrow’s Earnings”.
    The opportunities in GST may be summarized as under-
    1. Global Opportunities
    • Tax Advisory Services
    • International Research Issues
    • Knowledge Process Outsourcing
    • Information & Knowledge Sharing
    • Capacity Building Services "process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world."
    • Technology Support Services
    2. Audit and Assurance Service
    • Internal Review of Change Management
    • Internal Controls
    • Internal Audit of Compliance
    • Checklist for Statutory Audit
    • Assistance in Department Audit
    3. Operational Consultancy
    • Legislation Impact Analysis, Place of Supply Rules
    • Analysis of Costs and Price/ Margin Restructuring
    • Restructuring Supply Chain Management
    • Comparative Study of Laws
    • Understanding Principle of Destination
    • Financial Management & Competition Analysis
    • Review of Existing Contracts
    4. Network Support and Infrastructure
    • Synchronising IT Systems & Old Data
    • Strong Management Information System
    • System Reconciliations
    • Data Integration between Centre & States
    • Automation of Returns and other Utilities at Centre as well as States
    • Updating Amendments in IT Systems
    • Data Management for State Jurisdiction
    5. Accounting and Taxation Services
    • Treatment of Incentives
    • Process Documentations & Accounting Manuals
    • Branch Transfers
    • Budgetary Controls
    • Control & Dispute Settlement
    • Refunds, Appeals and Adjudications
    • Point of Taxation
    6. Compliance Requirements
    • Compliances under State Jurisdictions
    • Registration under New Scheme
    • Online Filing of Return for each State Jurisdiction
    • Evaluation of Tax Liability with credit set off
    • Statutory Compliances and Record Keeping
    • Filing of Declarations
    • Export Management
    7. Transitional Support
    • Deregistration from existing laws
    • Managing Pending Litigations
    • Review and Certification of stock on date of Transition
    • Knowledge Sharing & Capacity Building
    • Credit Analysis & Utilization
    • Comparative Valuation under GST
    8. Centre/State Support Service
    • Conscripting Legislation & Rules/Procedures
    • Reconciliation with Clearing House
    • Monitoring Transactions & Revenues
    • Coordination between Centre/States
    • Cross-Verification with Other Acts
    • Training and Education
    • Fixing rate based on RNR and Review

    Certificate Course in GST (Syllabus for 12 sessions) by CA Ashok Batra

    - Schedule II - Goods or Services
    - Composition Scheme for payment of tax 2 1. Meaning of Supply
    - Inter-state supply of goods or services
    - Zero-rated supply
    - Mixed & Composite Supply
    - Schedule I – Supply without consideration
    - Schedule III – Neither supply of goods nor services
    2. Meaning of Taxable person 3 1. Place of Supply of goods or services or both
    2. Provisions for e-commerce / Job Work / Works Contract 4 1. Input Tax Credit
    - Including concept of ISD 5 1. Registration
    2. Time of Supply
    3. Payment of Tax 6 1. Value of taxable supply of goods & services
    2. Tax Invoice / Debit note / Credit note 7 1. Transitional provisions
    2. Accounts & Records
    3. Miscellaneous Provisions
    - Anti-profiteering Measures 8 1. Returns
    2. Refunds
    3. Assessments
    4. Audits 9 1. Offences & Penalties 10 1. Demand & Recovery
    2. Appeals & Revision 11 1. Impact of GST on various sectors
    - Manufacturing
    - Trading 12 1. Impact of GST on Service Sector
    - Hospitality / Tourism
    - Banking
    - Construction & Real Estate
    - Professionals such as CA / Advocates

    Certificate Course in GST (Syllabus for 12 sessions) by CA Virender Chauhan

    Sessions Topics S.1 Concept of GST-Overview
    • Introduction and Background
    • Constitutional 101 st Amnd. Act,
    • Powers and Functions of GST Council,
    • Concept of Uniform Tax,
    • Origin to Destination, Exclusion of J&K-Impact, Important Definitions
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.2 Concept of Supply
    • Inclusions & exclusions;
    • Supplies even if made without consideration-whether taxable?
    • Supply of goods or supply of services-ambiguity resolved;
    • Negative list;
    • Govt. services/ supplies;
    • Composition levy;
    • Taxability of supplies on reverse charge basis
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.3 Time and Value of supply
    • Time of supply of goods;
    • Time of supply of services;
    • Concept of voucher;
    • Valuation of supply-
      1. Between distinct or related parties,
      2. When consideration is not wholly in money,
      3. Buy one get one free,
      4. Supply through an agent,
      5. Special situations-money changing etc.
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.4 Input Tax Credit
    • Credits during transition
    • Credits to new registrants
    • Credit on capital goods
    • Non-creditable items
    • Credit mechanism for banking company
    • Credits on works contract & job work
    • Input service distributor (ISD)
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.5 Registration
    • Migration of existing taxpayers
    • Threshold limits
    • Concept of aggregate turnover
    • Person not liable for registration
    • Compulsory registration-irrespective threshold
    • Casual taxable person and Non-resident taxable person
    • Amendment, Cancellation and Revocation of registration
    • Penalty for non-registration
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.6 Accounts and Records, Audit and Assessments
    • Kind of records to be maintained
    • Electronic format
    • Audit of accounts
    • Period of retention
    • Self-assessment
    • Provisional assessment
    • Best-judgement assessment
    • Audit by Commissioner
    • Special audit by CA’s
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.7 Payment and Refund of Tax
    • Modes of payment
    • Types of Electronic Ledgers- Cash, Credit, Liability Register
    • TDS/ TCS
    • Refunds-Whether Automatic?
    • Situations where refunds are allowed
    • Provisional refund
    • Documentation for refund
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.8 Filing of returns
    • Types of returns
    • First return
    • Matching concept
    • Annual return
    • Fee for late return
    • Role of GST practitioner
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.9 Miscellaneous Provisions
    • GST Compliance rating
    • Anti-profiteering measures
    • Goods sent to a job-worker
    • Deemed exports
    • Rectification of errors
    • Service of Notice
    • Compensation to States
    Offences and Penalties
    • Various offences under GST law
    • Penalties thereof
    • Imprisonment in certain cases
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.10 Place of Supply-IGST
    • Concept of IGST
    • Place of supply of goods-within India
    • Place of supply of goods-Import/ Exports
    • Place of supply of services-within India
    • Place of supply of services-Import/ Exports
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.11 Transitional Provisions
    • Input tax credit on inputs held in stock on appointed date
    • Goods sent on job-work
    • Input tax credit even if no duty paying documents of Central taxes to VAT dealers
    • Goods in transit
    • Goods returned in GST regime
    • Treatment of continuing contracts
    • Other transitional issues
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    S.12 Impact on industries
    • Logistics Sector
    • Aviation Sector
    • FMCG Sector
    • Banking Sector
    • Real Estate Sector
    • Infrastructure Industry-Energy Sector
    • Telecommunication Sector
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ
    Some special transactions
    • Consignment sales/ stock transfers
    • Supply between related parties or distinct parties, captive consumption
    • AMC, repairs & warranty contracts
    • Gifts and samples; free supplies to employees
    • Donations
    • Free imports
    • E-com operators
    • Practical examples
    • FAQ/ MCQ

    Study Material - Synopsis & Videos

    Synopsis of CGST Bill 2017 By
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    CGST Bill Digest By
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    GST Demo Videos By
    to know more details about

    GST Input Tax Credit Rules

    1.Documentary requirements and conditions for claiming input tax credit
    (1) The input tax credit shall be availed by a registered person, including the Input Service Distributor, on the basis of any of the following documents, namely:-
    (a) an invoice issued by the supplier of goods or services or both in accordance with the provisions of section 31;
    (b) a debit note issued by a supplier in accordance with the provisions of section 34;
    (c) a bill of entry;
    (d) an invoice issued in accordance with the provisions of clause (f) of sub-section (3) of section 31;
    (e) a document issued by an Input Service Distributor in accordance with the provisions of sub-rule (1) of rule invoice.7;
    (f) a document issued by an Input Service Distributor, as prescribed in clause (g) of sub-rule (1) of rule 4.
    (2) Input tax credit shall be availed by a registered person only if all the applicable particulars as prescribed in Chapter ---- (Invoice Rules) are contained in the said document, and the relevant information, as contained in the said document, is furnished in FORM GSTR-2 by such person.
    (3) No input tax credit shall be availed by a registered person in respect of any tax that has been paid in pursuance of any order where any demand has been raised on account of any fraud, willful misstatement or suppression of facts. Click here to read more

    GST Transition Rules

    1. Application in respect of tax or duty credit carried forward under any existing law or on goods held in stock on the appointed day
    (1) Every registered person entitled to take credit of input tax under section 140 shall, within sixty days of the appointed day, submit an application electronically in FORM GST TRAN1, duly signed, on the Common Portal specifying therein, separately, the amount of tax or duty to the credit of which the said person is entitled under the provisions of the said section: Provided that where the inputs have been received from an Export Oriented Unit or a unit located in Electronic Hardware Technology Park, the credit shall be allowed to the extent as provided in sub-rule (7) of rule 3 of the CENVAT Credit Rules, 2004:

    GST Valuation Rules

    1. Value of supply of goods or services where the consideration is not wholly in money
    Where the supply of goods or services is for a consideration not wholly in money, the value of the supply shall,
    (a) be the open market value of such supply;
    (b) if open market value is not available, be the sum total of consideration in money and any such further amount in money as is equivalent to the consideration not in money if such amount is known at the time of supply;
    (c) if the value of supply is not determinable under clause (a) or clause (b), be the value of supply of goods or services or both of like kind and quality;
    (d) if value is not determinable under clause (a) or clause (b) or clause (c), be the sum total of consideration in money and such further amount in money that is equivalent to consideration not in money as determined by application of rule 4 or rule 5 in that order.

    GST Composition Rules

    1. Intimation for composition levy
    (1) Any person who has been granted registration on a provisional basis under sub-rule (1) of rule Registration.16 and who opts to pay tax under section 10, shall electronically file an intimation in FORM GST CMP-01, duly signed, on the Common Portal, either directly or through a Facilitation Centre notified by the Commissioner, prior to the appointed day, but not later than thirty days after the said day, or such further period as may be extended by the Commissioner in this behalf: Provided that where the intimation in FORM GST CMP-01 is filed after the appointed day, the registered person shall not collect any tax from the appointed day but shall issue bill of supply for supplies made after the said day.
    (2) Any person who applies for registration under rule Registration.1 may give an option to pay tax under section 10 in Part B of FORM GST REG-01, which shall be considered as an intimation to pay tax under the said section.

    GST Revised Refund Rules

    1. Application for refund of tax, interest, penalty, fees or any other amount
    (1) Any person, except the persons covered by notification issued under section 55, claiming refund of any tax, interest, penalty, fees or any other amount paid by him, may file an application in FORM GST RFD-01 electronically through the Common Portal either directly or through a Facilitation Centre notified by the Commissioner:
    Provided that any claim for refund relating to balance in the electronic cash ledger in accordance with the provisions of sub-section (6) of section 49 may also be made through the return furnished for the relevant tax period in FORM GSTR-3, FORM GSTR-4 or FORM GSTR-7, as the case may be: Provided further that in case of export of goods, application for refund shall be filed only after the export manifest or an export report, as the case may be, is delivered under section 41 of the Customs Act, 1962 in respect of such goods:
    Provided also that in respect of supplies to a Special Economic Zone unit or a Special Economic Zone developer, the application for refund shall be filed by the supplier of goods after such goods have been admitted in full in the Special Economic Zone for authorized operations, as endorsed by the specified officer of the Zone:


    Traders and dealers who have not completed their registration process can continue to do their business under the GST regime from July 1 using the provisional ID, a top government official said. The 15-digit provisional ID would work as the Goods and Services Taxpayer Identification Number (GSTIN) for the first initial few months, Revenue Secretary Hasmukh Adhia said. In an interview to PTI, Adhia sought to assuage industry concerns about the GST registration process saying that businesses need not panic and need not rush for registration as the dealers and traders who have secured a provisional ID can conduct business in the new indirect regime. "You can continue to do your business using the provisional ID and quote the GSTIN in all businesses. They will not have to wait for final GSTIN to come. Even if they have not given their details fully, from July 1 they can continue their business. People should not panic," he said. Of the 80.91 lakh excise, service tax and VAT assessees, 65.6 lakh, or 81 per cent, have already migrated to the GSTN portal. However, of this 65.6 lakh, as many as 13 lakh business have not completed the second stage of the registration process which entails the verification process. When a business registers under GST, it is given a provisional GSTIN. After that, in the second stage, the business has to log in to the GSTN portal and give details of its business, like the main place of business, additional place of business, directors and bank account details. Adhia said the government has done away with the requirement of verification of registration through digital signature, or by generating electronic verification code (EVC). "They don't have to give digital signature or e-sign it now. They can just save it and automatically an e mail will be sent to them saying all their details are received and it is complete. Once they have saved the details, they will have no other worry. Even if they don't receive the e-mail immediately, they don't need to panic. They can still continue to do their business from July 1," Adhia said. However, the details should be given to the GSTN portal "as early as possible". Adhia said that the registration of new businesses will start from June 25 and they will have 30 days time for registration. The window for taxpayers wanting to migrate on GSTN portal will open on the same day. "They should not rush on the same day on June 25. We would appeal to all to keep their papers ready and do it in time," he said. The biggest tax reform since independence, GST will be rolled out on the midnight of June 30 and make India a single market for seamless movement of goods and services. The GST subsumes 16 different levies, including excise, service tax and VAT.


    Makers of consumer durables say they expect the market to take at least 2-3 months to normalise operations post the implementation of Goods and Services Tax from July 1. Migration to the new indirect tax regime, they said, is causing 'discomfort' among their trade partners who are busy clearing old stock to avoid losses before the new indirect tax regime kicks in next month. "GST has caused a sense of discomfort amongst the traders as they are worried about the cash flow that might occur during GST implementation therefore, consumer-centric offers are being introduced," Panasonic India Head-Channel Operations Ajay Seth told PTI. Explaining the current situation in the industry value chain, Godrej Appliances Business Head and Executive Vice President Kamal Nandi said that if distributors were to carry forward stocks to the GST regime from VAT regime, they would lose around 3-4 per cent margin. "Right now they are liquidating their stock. If they do not have any stock, they are purchasing it. They are not upstocking anything," he added. According to the Consumer Electronics and Appliances Manufacturers Association (CEAMA), the situation could take up to three months to normalise after the implementation of GST. "Business will be normalised over the next two-three months of operations," CEAMA President Manish Sharma. Nandi ruled out any panic in the market saying informed decisions and planned strategies are being executed, and companies are supporting their dealer partners. "We have given some sell out schemes to reduce stocks and they (trade partners) would purchase from July 1," he added. Expressing similar views, Videocon COO C M Singh said traders are focusing on liquidating their stocks. "In order to help out traders in the given situation, we are extending the excise paid bills," he added. Under the GST regime, most of the home appliances and consumer durables will attract 28 per cent levy barring some items such as air coolers which are under the 18 per cent bracket.


    "How would you treat a car given to employees for their use under GST (goods and services tax)?" a tax head of a car company asked me. 'Why should it be such a big problem?' I wondered. Until I realised the nuances of such a transaction. Is the car capitalised in the books of the company? Is it registered in the company's or employee's name? As per the company's HR policy, is the employee allowed personal use of the car? If yes, is there any way to identify that personal use? Are there different entitlements, different models or variants of cars specified for each level in the organisational hierarchy? And many more queries. Very often, we believe the employer-employee relationship to be beyond the purview of indirect tax. The company, we figure, is only a juridical person and operates through the acts of its employees. So, the employee and the company should not be treated as different persons to charge tax on every transaction between them. But some of the entries in the GST law tend to defy this logic. Schedule 3 of the Central GST (CGST) Act 2017 deals with activities or transactions that shall not be treated as supply. One entry specifies "services provided by an employee to the employer in the course of or in relation to his employment". So, the consideration paid by an employer to the employee i.e., salary paid for rendering services in the course of employment would not be taxable under GST. But what all can be treated as services in the context of employment? Will components covered in the cost-to-company (CTC) of an employee house rent allowance, dearness allowance, etc. not attract GST, since this would be pure consideration to an employee for his employment? Also, what would be the treatment of, say, club fees reimbursed over and above the CTC? If an employee of an IT company acts as a DJ at an office party and gets paid for the service, would it not be services rendered in the course of his employment? Would the same be treated as a service liable to GST? The GST law complicates the employer-employee relationship further by way of Entry 2 in Schedule 1 of the CGST Act, "Supply of goods/services made without a consideration between related persons, when made in the course or furtherance of business, would be Further, the law deems the employer and employee to be related persons. So, even if there is no consideration for the goods/services provided to an employee, the supply could still attract tax. Would this mean that laptops provided to employees would get covered, as these are provided in the furtherance of business? Well, they shouldn't. Why? Because there must exist an element of 'supply' in the transaction. Supply mostly occurs when someone loses possession or ownership or both. Barring exceptions, typically this test holds good. When a laptop is given to an employee, he gets its possession, which he retains till he is in employment. But would that qualify as a supply? If it does, then even the workstation allotted to the employee must qualify as one. This makes the scenario absurd. However, all things are not as black and white. If we take the example of free coffee from a vending machine provided to an employee, the answer may not be so simple. Another twist in the tale is that the proviso to Entry 2 in Schedule 2 excludes from the definition of 'supply' gifts up to Rs. 50,000 provided to an employee in a financial year. Hence, gifts above Rs. 50,000 would be liable to GST and a company would be required to keep a record of gifts provided to each employee. But would showing appreciation in the form of cash rewards or vouchers as opposed to a gold coin, for instance be considered as a gift? Or would it be considered for services of employment provided by the employee? The employee and employer relationship revolves around many such examples. It is the play of words like 'in furtherance of', 'in relation to' and 'in the course of ' that makes the difference. So, it is necessary to understand each transaction and view it under the lens of the GST law. Sometimes it may be prudent to tweak the HR policies and CTC structures, so as to make the compliance under GST simpler. Who said tax managers and tax consultants would lose relevance under GST?


    Filing a tax return on the Goods and Services Tax Network (GSTN) portal by an entity will cost Rs. 55 a month but the state will bear this burden. The user charge for all eight million taxpayers will be borne by the Union and the state governments, to keep revenue flowing for GSTN, the company charged with providing the information technology (IT) backbone for the reform, without burdening the assessees. GST is set to be rolled out from Friday and will absorb a slew of indirect taxes including service tax, central excise, value added tax, central sales tax and octroi. GSTN, officially a private body (it was formed at the government's behest and support), has estimated the total cost of the project at Rs. 3,000 crore. That covers salaries, interest cost, security operations for five years of operation and the ongoing development period of two years. It awarded a contract worth Rs. 1,320 crore to Infosys for building and maintain the IT network, crucial for implementing the proposed system across the country, for five years. GSTN's job is to provide a common platform for registration, a filing of returns and e-payment. It will also integrate the common GST portal with the tax administration systems of Centre and states. The Centre and states will pay Rs. 550 crore to GSTN for the expenses incurred this financial year. The budget proposal was approved by the GST Council in its recent meeting. "We will get money on a per-taxpayer basis for all the cost we are incurring and other expenses that will come up. We have worked out the per-taxpayer cost," said Navin Kumar, chairman, GSTN. It had earlier proposed to charge a user fee for filing a return using the portal. The government rejected the proposal. 'The government disagreed as taxpayers have never been charged anything for filing a return. It asked for the number of taxpayers and said they will pay," said Kumar. The cost of each taxpayer will be split between the Centre and states on a monthly basis. The cost per state will be calculated on the basis of the number of taxpayers in that state and will be shared with the Centre. With that, the Centre will pay the GSTN a little over Rs. 23 crore a month. The total cost was arrived by taking into account the slightly over eight million taxpayers. "Using the same formula, we will calculate the cost for next year as well," said Kumar. The Rs. 550 crore revenue will go towards repaying a Rs. 550 crore loan from IDFC and to pay, Infosys, besides salaries for the staff. The GSTN had taken the term loan earlier this year and will further take a working capital loan. The government has provided a guarantee for the loan, used for developing the service and hardware. The loan is needed only till rollout of the portal. The revenue model of charging on a per-user basis will help it sustain afterwards. GSTN was incorporated at end-March 2013, as a private limited company, with government shareholding of 49 per cent and private shareholding of 51 per cent. ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, LIC Housing and NSE Strategic Investment Corporation hold at least 10 per cent stake each. The other 49 per cent is held by the central and state governments, each holding 24.5 per cent. About 6.6 million taxpayers have already migrated to the GST portal and received provisional identification. The window for migrating was earlier closed for a while; it reopened for new taxpayers last week. It is compulsory for dealers with an annual turnover of more than Rs. 20 lakh to register.

    .54 a share. During 2011, Kodak shares fell more than 80 percent.
  • January 2012: Kodak received a warning from the (NYSE) notifying it that its average closing price was below .00 for 30 consecutive days and that over the next 6 months it must increase the closing share price to at least on the last trading day of each calendar month and have an average closing price of at least over the 30 trading-days prior or it would be delisted. From the range in 1997, Kodak shares closed at 76 cents on January 3, 2012. On January 8, 2012, Kodak shares closed over 50% higher after the company announced a major restructuring into two main divisions, one focused on products and services for businesses, and the other on consumer products including digital cameras.
  • January 19, 2012: Kodak filed for Bankruptcy Protection. The company's stock was delisted from NYSE and moved to OTC exchange. Following the news it ended the day trading down 35% at .36 a share.
  • February 7, 2012: The Image Sensor Solutions (ISS) division of Kodak was sold to Truesense Imaging Inc.
  • February 9, 2012: Kodak announced that it would exit the digital image capture business, phasing out its production of digital cameras.Kodak sees home photo printers, high-speed commercial inkjet presses, workflow software and packaging with software integrated, as the core of its future business. Once the digital camera business is phased out, Kodak said its consumer business will focus on printing. It will seek a company to license its EasyShare digital camera brand.
  • August 24, 2012: Kodak announced that it plans to sell its film, commercial scanner and kiosk divisions.
  • September 10, 2012: Kodak announced plans to cut another 1,000 jobs by the end of 2012 and that it is examining further job cuts as it works to restructure its business in bankruptcy.
  • September 28, 2012: Kodak announced that it is exiting the inkjet printer business.
  • December 20, 2012 Kodak announced that it plans to sell its digital imaging patents for about 5 million to some of the world’s biggest technology companies, thus making a step to end bankruptcy.
  • April 29, 2013 Kodak announced an agreement with the U.K. Kodak Pension Plan (KPP) to spin off Kodak’s Personalized Imaging and Document Imaging businesses and settle .8 Billion in KPP claims.
  • September 3, 2013 Kodak announces that it has emerged from Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Protection as a company focused on serving commercial customers.
  • October 17, 2013 Kodak brings European headquarters and the entire Technology Centre under one roof in Eysins, Switzerland. The relocation brings together the company's European headquarters and Inkjet demo facilities, which were based in Gland, Switzerland, and the Kodak EAMER Technology and Solutions Centre, which was based in , Belgium.
  • March 12, 2014 Kodak names as its new Chief Executive Officer.
  • July 30, 2014 Kodak is negotiating with movie studios for an annual movie film order guarantee to preserve the last source of movie film manufacturing in the United States.
  • December 2014, Kodak announced its first phone, the smartphone made by . The phone was expected to become available in December 2016, initially in Europe.
  • January 2016, Kodak shows off a prototype of the new Super 8 Camera at CES.
  • January 2017, Kodak announced it was bringing back its Ektachrome film.
  • May 2017, Kodak released the Ektra smartphone to the US market.
  • June 2017, Kodak announced plans to release 7" and 10" tablets with in Europe.
  • September 2018, Kodak announced that the 35 mm format of Ektachrome was made available again.

Products and services[]

Main article:


Kodak provides packaging, functional printing, graphic communications and professional services for businesses around the world. Its main business segments are Print Systems, Enterprise Inkjet Systems, Micro 3D Printing and Packaging, Software and Solutions, and Consumer and Film.

In January 2018, Kodak announced plans to launch , a photographer-oriented .

Digital printing and enterprise[]

Kodak provides high-speed, high-volume commercial inkjet, and color and black-and-white electrophotographic printing equipment and related consumables and services. It has an installed base of more than 5,000 units.

Its Prosper platform uses Stream , which delivers a continuous flow of ink that enables constant and consistent operation, with uniform size and accurate placement, even at very high print speeds. Applications for Prosper include publishing, commercial print, direct mail, and packaging. The business also includes the customer base of Kodak VersaMark products.

The NexPress platform is used for printing short-run, personalized print applications for purposes such as direct mail, books, marketing collateral and photo products. The Digimaster platform uses monochrome electrophotographic printing technology to create high-quality printing of statements, short-run books, corporate documentation, manuals and direct mail.

Flexo printing[]

Kodak designs and manufactures products for printing. Its Flexcel line of flexo printing systems allow label printers to produce their own digital plates for customized flexo printing and flexible printed packaging.

Functional printing[]

The company currently has strategic relationships with worldwide touch-panel sensor leaders, such as the partnerships with UniPixel announced on April 16, 2013 and Kingsbury Corp. launched on June 27, 2013.

Enterprise professional services[]

Enterprise professional services offers print and managed media services, brand protection solutions and services, and document management services to enterprise customers, including government, pharmaceuticals, and health, consumer and luxury good products, retail and finance.

Digital printing solutions[]

In 1997, and Eastman Kodak Co. had created the Nexpress Solutions LLC joint venture to develop a digital color printing press for the high-end market segment. Heidelberg acquired Eastman Kodak Co.'s Office Imaging black and white digital printing activities in 1999. In 2000, they had launched Digimaster 9110 - Black & White Production Printer and NexPress 2100 Digital Color Press.

In March 2004, Heidelberg transferred its Digital Print division to Eastman Kodak Co. under mutual agreement. Kodak continues to research and develop Digital Printing Systems and introduced more products.

At present, Kodak has commercial Web-fed presses, commercial imprinting systems - Prosper, VersaMark and commercial sheet-fed press - NexPress digital production color press, DIGIMASTER HD digital black and white production printer.

Consumer inkjet ink cartridges[]

Kodak entered into consumer inkjet photo printers in a joint venture with manufacturer in 1999 with the Kodak Personal Picture Maker.

In February 2007, Kodak re-entered the market with a new product line of (AiO) inkjet printers that employ several technologies marketed as . Advertising emphasizes low price for rather than for the printers themselves.

Kodak announced plans to stop selling inkjet printers in 2013 as it focuses on commercial printing, but will still sell ink.

Graphics, Entertainment and Commercial Films (GECF)[]


Kodak's graphics business consists of computer to plate (CTP) devices, which Kodak first launched in 1995 when the company introduced the first thermal CTP to market. In CTP, an output device exposes a digital image using SQUAREspot laser imaging technology directly to an aluminum surface (printing plate), which is then mounted onto a printing press to reproduce the image. Kodak's Graphics portfolio includes front-end controllers, production workflow software, CTP output devices, and digital plates.

Global Technical Services[]

Kodak’s Global Technical Services ("GTS") for Commercial Imaging is focused on selling service contracts for Kodak products, including the following service categories: field services, customer support services, educational services, and professional services.

Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film[]

Kodak's Entertainment Imaging and Commercial Film group ("E&CF") encompasses its motion picture film business, providing motion imaging products (camera negative, intermediate, print and archival film), services and technology for the professional motion picture and exhibition industries.

E&CF also offers Aerial and Industrial Films including KODAK Printed Circuit Board film, and delivers external sales for the company’s component businesses: Polyester Film, Specialty Chemicals, Inks and Dispersions and Solvent Recovery.

Motion picture and TV production[]

The Kodak company played a role in the invention and development of the motion picture industry. Many cinema and TV productions are shot on Kodak film stocks.

The company helped set the standard of , and introduced the format for use and lower budget .

The home market-oriented and formats were also developed by Kodak. Kodak also entered the professional television production market, briefly in the mid-1980s, under the product portfolio name of Eastman Professional Video Tape Products. In 1990, Kodak launched a Worldwide Student Program working with university faculty throughout the world to help nurture the future generation of film-makers. Kodak formed Educational Advisory Councils in the US, Europe and Asia made up of deans and chairs of some of the most prestigious film schools throughout the world to help guide the development of their program.

Kodak previously owned the visual effects film post-production facilities Cinesite in Los Angeles and London and also LaserPacific in Los Angeles. Kodak sold Cinesite to , an independent British private equity house.

Kodak previously sold LaserPacific and its subsidiaries Laser-Edit, Inc, and Pacific Video, Inc., in April 2010 for an undisclosed sum to TeleCorps Holdings, Inc.

Kodak also sold Pro-Tek Media Preservation Services, a film storage company in Burbank, California, in October 2013.

Technical support and on-site service[]

Aside from technical phone support for its products, Kodak offers onsite service for other devices such as document scanners, data storage systems (optical, tape, and disk), printers, inkjet printing presses, microfilm/microfiche equipment, photograph kiosks, and photocopiers, for which it despatches technicians who make repairs in the field.


Kodak markets Picture CDs and other photo products such as calendars, photo books and photo enlargements through retail partners such as CVS, Walmart and Target and through its Kodak Gallery online service, formerly known as Ofoto.


A Kodak Instamatic 104

Still film cameras[]

On January 13, 2004, Kodak announced it would stop marketing traditional still film cameras (excluding ) in the United States, Canada and Western Europe, but would continue to sell film cameras in India, Latin America, Eastern Europe and China. By the end of 2005, Kodak ceased manufacturing cameras that used the . Kodak licensed the manufacture of Kodak branded cameras to in 2005 and 2006. After 2007 Kodak did not license the manufacture of any film camera with the Kodak name.

Instant cameras[]

After losing a patent battle with , Kodak left the business on January 9, 1986. The Kodak instant camera included models known as the and the Colorburst.

Polaroid was awarded damages in the patent trial in the amount of 9,457,567, a record at the time. (Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., U.S. District Court District of Massachusetts, decided October 12, 1990, case no. 76-1634-MA. Published in the U.S. Patent Quarterly as 16 USPQ2d 1481). See also the following cases: Polaroid Corp. v. Eastman Kodak Co., 641 F.Supp. 828 [228 USPQ 305] (D. Mass. 1985), stay denied, 833 F.2d 930 [5 USPQ2d 1080] (Fed. Cir.), aff'd, 789 F.2d 1556 [229 USPQ 561] (Fed. Cir.), cert. denied, 479 U.S. 850 (1986).

Kodak was the exclusive supplier of negatives for Polaroid cameras from 1963 until 1969, when Polaroid chose to manufacture its own .

Image sensors[]

As part of its move toward higher end products, Kodak announced on September 15, 2006 that the new camera incorporates Kodak's . This was the second recent partnership between Kodak and the German optical manufacturer. In 2011, Kodak sold its Image Sensor Solutions business to Platinum Equity, which subsequently renamed it Truesense Imaging, Inc.

Digital cameras and video cameras[]

Main articles: and

A Kodak Easyshare Z1015 IS digital camera

Many of Kodak's early compact digital cameras were designed and built by , a Japanese camera manufacturer. In 2004, Kodak Japan acquired Chinon and many of its engineers and designers joined Kodak Japan.

The series of and were released by Kodak in the 1990s and 2000s, and discontinued in 2005. They were based on existing SLRs from Nikon and Canon and the range included the original , the first commercially available digital SLR.

In July 2006, Kodak announced that would manufacture and help design its digital cameras.

Digital picture frames[]

Kodak first entered the digital picture frame market with the Kodak Smart Picture Frame in the fourth quarter of 2000. It was designed by Weave Innovations and licensed to Kodak with an exclusive relationship with Weave's StoryBox online photo network. Smart Frame owners connected to the network via an analog telephone connection built into the frame. The frame could hold 36 images internally and came with a six-month free subscription to the StoryBox network.

Kodak re-entered the digital photo frame market at CES in 2007 with the introduction of four new EasyShare-branded models that were available in sizes from 200 to 280 mm (7.9 to 11.0 in), included multiple , and some of which included capability to connect with the Kodak Gallery—that gallery functionality has now been compromised due to gallery policy changes (see below).

Kodak Gallery[]

Main article:

In June 2001, Kodak purchased the photo-developing website , later renamed Kodak Gallery. The website enables users to upload their photos into albums, publish them into prints, and create mousepads, calendars, etc. On March 1, 2012, Kodak announced that it sold Kodak Gallery to Shutterfly for .8 million.

Document imaging[]

Kodak provides scanning technology. Historically this industry began when George Eastman partnered with banks to image checks in the 1920s. Through the development of microfilm technology, Eastman Kodak was able to provide long term document storage. Document imaging was one of the first imaging solutions to move to "digital imaging" technology. Kodak manufactured the first digital document scanners for high speed document imaging. Today Kodak has a full line of document scanners for banking, finance, insurance, healthcare and other vertical industries. Kodak also provides associated document capture software and business process services. Eastman Kodak acquired the Bowe Bell & Howell scanner division in September 2009.

Photographic film and paper[]

Kodak continues to produce specialty films and film for newer and more popular consumer formats, but it has discontinued the manufacture of film in older and less popular formats.

Kodak is a leading producer of (AgX) paper used for printing from film and digital images. Minilabs located in retail stores and larger central photo lab operations (CLOs) use silver halide paper for photo printing. In 2005 Kodak announced it would stop producing black-and-white photo paper.

Photo kiosks[]

A Kodak NexPress 2500 digital printing press

Kodak is a manufacturer of self-service photo kiosks that produce "prints in seconds" from multiple sources including digital input, scanned prints, Facebook, the Kodak Gallery and orders placed on-line using . The company has placed over 100,000 Picture Kiosks in retail locations worldwide. Employing similar technology, Kodak also offers larger printing systems with additional capabilities including duplex greeting cards, large format poster printers, photobooks and calendars under the brand name "APEX".

1900 Kodak ad

The letter k was a favorite of Eastman's; he is quoted as saying, "it seems a strong, incisive sort of letter."

He and his mother devised the name Kodak with an set. Eastman said that there were three principal concepts he used in creating the name: it should be short, easy to pronounce, and not resemble any other name or be associated with anything else.



    • the company's sales and marketing headquarters are located in Watford, UK, with Kodak Alaris operating in Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire
    • manufacturing facilities used to be sited at Harrow in north-west London (closed in 2016), Kirkby near Liverpool (closed in 2007) and Annesley in Nottinghamshire (closed in 2005).
    • FPC, US/Canada
    • FPC Italy

Kodak Research Laboratories[]

The Kodak Research Laboratories were founded in 1912 with as the first director. Principal components of the Kodak Research Laboratories were the Photographic Research Laboratories and then the Imaging Research Laboratories. Additional organizations included the Corporate Research Laboratories. Over nearly a century, scientists at these laboratories produced thousands of patents and scientific publications.

Notable people[]

Presidents and CEOs[]

George Eastman Name Title Tenure President 1884 – July 26, 1919 President 1921 – April 7, 1925 William G. Stuber President 1925–1934 Frank W. Lovejoy President 1934–1941 Thomas J. Hargrave President 1941–1952 Albert K. Chapman President 1952–1960 President and CEO 1960 – December 31, 1968 Louis K. Eilers President and CEO January 1, 1969 – May 17, 1972 President then Chairman 1970–1984 President and CEO May 18, 1972 – 1983 CEO May 1983 – June 1990 Kay R. Whitmore CEO June 1990 – October 27, 1993 CEO October 28, 1993 – December 31, 1999 CEO January 1, 2000 – May 31, 2005 Chairman and CEO June 1, 2005 – 2014 CEO March 12, 2014 – present


  • , color scientist (1929–2012)
  • , polymer chemist (1917–2011)
  • , laser physicist and author (left in 2006)
  • , camouflage physicist (1884–1954)
  • , polymer scientist (1897–1981)
  • , optical designer (1903–2003)
  • , color scientist (1910–1998)
  • , film scientist and founder of the research laboratories (1882–1960)
  • , physicist and founder of (1873–1949)
  • , electrical engineer
  • , OLED scientist (left in 2010)
  • , optical engineer (1922–2008)
  • , OLED scientist (left in 2006)
  • , Special Effects Film Pioneer and receiver of an Award of Commendation (1914-2006)

Archive donation[]

In 2005, Kodak Canada donated its entire historic company archives to in , Ontario, Canada. The also acquired an extensive collection of materials on the history of photography from the private collection of Nicholas M. & Marilyn A. Graver of Rochester, New York. The Kodak Archives, begun in 1909, contain the company's Camera Collection, historic photos, files, trade circulars, Kodak magazines, price lists, daily record books, equipment, and other ephemera. It includes the contents of the Kodak Heritage Collection Museum, a museum established in 1999 for Kodak Canada's centennial that Kodak closed in 2005 along with the company's entire '' manufacturing campus in , Toronto. See also: .


Better Business Bureau[]

On March 26, 2007, the (CBBB) announced that Eastman Kodak was resigning its national membership in the wake of expulsion proceedings initiated by the CBBB board of directors. In 2006, Kodak notified the BBB of Upstate New York that it would no longer accept or respond to consumer complaints submitted by them. In prior years, Kodak responded by offering consumers an adjustment or an explanation of the company’s position. The BBB file contains consumer complaints of problems with repairs of Kodak digital cameras, as well as difficulty communicating with Kodak customer service. Among other complaints, consumers say that their cameras broke and they were charged for repairs when the failure was not the result of any damage or abuse. Some say their cameras failed again after being repaired.

Kodak said its customer service and customer privacy teams concluded that 99% of all complaints forwarded by the BBB already were handled directly with the customer. Brian O’Connor, Kodak chief privacy officer, said the company was surprised by the news release distributed by the Better Business Bureau:

It is inaccurate in the facts presented as well as those the BBB chose to omit. Ironically, we ultimately decided to resign our membership because we were extremely unhappy with the customer service we received from the local office of the BBB. After years of unproductive discussions with the local office regarding their Web site postings about Kodak, which in our view were consistently inaccurate, we came to the conclusion that their process added no value to our own. Our commitment to our customers is unwavering. That will not change. What has changed is that, for us, the BBB's customer complaint process has become redundant, given the multiple and immediate ways that customers have to address their concerns directly with Kodak.

Patent litigation[]

In 2010, Apple filed a patent-infringement claim against Kodak. On May 12, 2011, Judge Robert Rogers rejected Apple's claims that two of its digital photography patents were being violated by Kodak.

On July 1, 2011, the U.S. partially reversed a January decision by an stating that neither Apple nor Research in Motion had infringed upon Kodak's patents. The ITC remanded the matter for further proceedings before the ALJ.

See also[]


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External links[]

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