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Stylized Depiction in Computer Graphics
Non-Photorealistic, Painterly and 'Toon Rendering

an annotated survey of online resources

News The 3rd International Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering

June 7-9, 2004 in Annecy, France
Paper submission deadline: October 23, 2003

While I have not done research in this area myself, I am fascinated by the computer graphic technique known as non-photorealistic rendering. (Admittedly it is a little odd to name a field of study by what it is not. Stanislaw Ulam apparently once remarked: "The study of non-linear physics is like the study of non-elephant biology.") My list of links on this topic began to outgrow its place on my bookmarks list, so I created this page to give them a home, and perhaps to help other people interested in the field.

To better describe the kinds of techniques listed here, and to define the informal taxonomy used on this page, it is helpful to note that techniques for stylized depiction can be classified along the axis from interactive to fully automatic, and that there are three distinct types of input for these stylized depiction processes:

  1. 3D scenes (described in terms of geometry, color, lighting, etc.) for rendering
  2. images for processing
  3. brushstrokes from a user (like the input to a paint system)

In computer graphics, photorealistic rendering attempts to make artificial images of simulated 3d environments that look "just like the real world." So non-photorealistic rendering (NPR) is any technique that produces images of simulated 3d world in a style other than realism. Often these styles are reminiscent of paintings (painterly rendering), or of various other styles of artistic illustration (sketch, pen and ink, etching, lithograph, ...) Of particular commercial interest are techniques that can render 3d scenes in styles which match the "look" of traditionally animated films. Often called 'toon shading, these techniques allow for seamless combination of 3d elements with traditional cel animation.

Another important application of non-photorealistic rendering is to help the user understand that a depiction is only approximate. Psychologically, photorealistic rendering seems to imply an exactness and perfection which may overstate the fidelity of the simulated scene to a real object. The system (mentioned below) has proved more useful than photorealistic rendering in an application that pre-visualizes kitchen remodeling. The modeler (see below) uses a sketchy rendering style to suggest the approximate 3D shapes it has inferred from the user's 2d drawing.

Also listed here are some image processing techniques which can transform an image into a style that suggests a painting or other artistic styles. The images can be photographic or from any other source. Some of the techniques have the ability to process a series of images, as from a video or film camera, and to produce a stylized image that remains stable from frame to frame, allowing the creation of something like an "animated painting."

This page also includes: (1) some computational techniques that carefully simulate traditional artistic media such as watercolor and ink painting, (2) some references to work on non-traditional perspective common to traditional illustration but rare in computer graphics, (3) techniques for finding and using silhouettes of 3D objects, (4) non-realistic techniques designed for real time or interactive rates, and (5) non-traditional halftones and screenings.

Finally it should be noted that any claim that an automatic process can produce "art" or a "painting" should be regarded as suspect. Making art is a creative and thoughtful process. It may even be uniquely human. The possibility of artificial creativity, let alone artificial intelligence, are open research questions. None of the techniques described here are candidates for true artificial creativity. I have tried to use neutral language ("...suggests a painterly style...") on this page to skirt the distinction between art and procedural techniques for stylized depiction.

(Note: items marked [new] have been added in the three months prior to the time of the "last update" indicated at the bottom of this page.)

Painterly Rendering

  • (1996, PDF 0.26MB, ) by . (See also this student project based on Meier's work: by and at Georgia Tech.)
  • by , and
  • (1997) by , , , and . See these .
  • (1997) by and .
  • (1998) by , procedurally drives "brushes" around implicitly defined surfaces, leaving either a trace of color or a tooth-paste-like extrusion of material.
  • (2000) by George Katanics and Tasso Lappas (at the site) describes the technique first used in Disney's feature film . See also: a one page SIGGRAPH 1999 sketch (1999) by , this (1999) by Audrey Doyle in , and a brief of the technique at the official web site. See also (1999) by Barbara Robertson in .
  • (1999, PDF 4.7MB ) by . Describes an enhancement to Haeberli's 1990 work Paint By Numbers, an automatic technique for determining stroke parameters which had been selected by hand in the original work.
  • (2003) by is a realtime implementation in the language of painterly rendering inspiried by Meier.  The site includes a (in German, PDF 1.1MB), a (in English, PDF 1MB), images, movies, source code and an application. [new]

Sketching, Pen-and-Ink, Engraving (and related high-contrast rendering styles)

  • (1990) by , transforms line drawings from a CAD system to look something like a hand-sketched pencil drawing.
  • (1994) by , , , Jutta Schumann and . Early, influential paper on sketch rendering and the perceptual effects of various rendering styles on the user.
  • (1994) by and .
  • (1994) by , see these .
  • (1996) by and
  • (1996) by Jutta Schumann, , , and Stefan Laser.
  • (1996) by Mike Salisbury, , and . See also this related 1998 by .
  • (1997) by , and . See also (1998) by , and . And see the of sketch rendering.
  • by , see also this
  • (1997) by surveys three expressive styles of line drawing.
  • commercial Mac software to convert from 3d models to artistic portrayals. See their .
  • by . See also this related by .
  • (1997) Mike Salisbury, Michael Wong, and .
  • (1998, Postscript 2MB) by , and . See these
  • (1998, abstract) by , Minoru Okada, and . Constructs models reminiscent of carved wooden sculpture, which can be used to generate a woodcut print. The (PDF, 886KB) is available but requires a paid subscription to The Visual Computer.
  • (1999, PDF 9MB) by and . See these .
  • The system by includes a line drawing illustration tool ("illustrt"). See these .
  • (1999) by , , , , and .
  • (1999) by Victor Ostromoukhov, full paper is (PDF 12MB). Process to transform images into gravure style graphics.
  • (2000, PDF 6.2MB) , , and . Using lines along the first and second principal directions of curvature to communicate surface shape. Abstract and compressed PDF files .
  • (2000, PDF 0.7 MB) by , , and . Pen-and-ink illustrations with simulated stippling, uses a relaxation method based on Voronoi diagrams.
  • (2000) by and . Line-art rendering of smooth surfaces: new techniques for finding silhouettes and their visibility (a novel approach using homogeneous coordinates and dual surfaces), automatic method for creating hatch marks to convey surface shape. Full paper is (PDF 7 MB).
  • (2000, PDF 0.6 MB) by and describes automatic creation of pen-and-ink illustrations of trees with different drawing styles and levels of abstraction. The technique is suitable for animation.
  • (2000) by and presents an interactive system for generating line art drawings to illustrate 3D models that are given as triangulated surfaces. Strokes are defined by tracing streamlines of principal curvature.
  • Algorithms for Sketching Terrain (2000) by in a presentation to the Royal Institute called . See also (2000, ) regarding cognitive evaluation of sketches

Stylized Depiction to Enhance Legibility

  • (1990) and Tokiichiro Takahashi, Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 90, Computer Graphics, Annual Conference Series, 1990, pages 197-206.
  • (1993) Ph.D dissertation by describes the IBIS system for intent-based illustration. Its goal is to generate a 3d rendering of a scene to convey a intent expressed in a high-level specification language.
  • (1998) by , , and . See this page of .
  • (2000, PDF 0.73MB) by and describes the creation of illustrations for a digital book based on 3d geometrical models and various styles of visualization. (From )
  • (2001) by and describes a technique for producing non-realistic route maps (directions for driving from one place to another) which are more legible than geographically accurate maps. They exaggerate the lengths of short roads to maintain visibility and straighten the shape of roads to produce a simple, clean map. You can use these directions yourself at . []

Other Rendering Styles

  • (1998) by (based on earlier work by ). Built upon the (Data Explorer) system, creates shaded images with limited palettes (reminiscent of serigraphs), outlined in a pen-and-ink style.
  • (and related pages) by . See also this citation of a SIGGRAPH Sketch: (1998).
  • (1999, PDF 748KB) by , , , , , and .
  • (1999) by is a unique rendering framework utilizing a C++ based shading language and provides a host of 2D and non-photorealistic effects based on the concept of a mark generator. Take a look at the amazing imagery in the .
  • (2000, PhD dissertation, PDF 2.8MB) by . Seeks to use techniques from traditional art and illustration to increase the expressive power of 3D computer graphics. See also the related pages of the project.
  • (2000) by , , , , and . Extends work to provide better frame-to-frame coherence of the graftal elements of which the images are constructed. The page includes an abstract, the full (PDF, 0.4MB) and animated sample images.
  • (2001) by , , and describes a system for shading by example. 3D models are shaded with a spherical diffuse color map. This map is created by interactively selecting regions of a prototype stylized image to form pie-slice shaped sectors of the sphere map. The full paper is (PDF 1.26 MB).
  • Derek Cornish, and represents a 3D model as a system of particles, placed by a view-dependent clustering algorithm. The algorithm unifies several tasks: placing strokes, regulating screen-space stroke density, and ensuring coherence for animation. The full paper is (PDF, 0.15 MB).

Stylized Halftoning

  • (1995) by , full paper is (PDF 3.7MB). Technique to create halftone style images using arbitrary high contrast micro art to shape the halftone "dots." See also the page.
  • (1996) by .
  • (1998) by , , and , full paper is (PDF 1MB).
  • (1998, Postscript 2.2MB) by and . Introduces a user-defined importance function which controls the nature fo the half tone, allows user selection of drawing primitive.
  • (1999) by , full paper is (PDF 5.5MB). Generalizing the Artistic Screening to color printing.
  • (1999) and . Full paper is (compressed Postscript 495 KB).
  • (1999, Postscript 4.4MB) by , and . Control of tone and texture for non-photorealistic halftones.
  • (1999, PDF 718KB) by and . Uses additional information from rendered 3D scenes to create stylized halftones better suited to the subject matter.

Real Time Techniques (or at least, those running at interactive rates)

  • (1997) by , , , , , and . Trades accuracy and detail for speed, uses a method for determining visible lines and surfaces which is a modification of Appel's hidden-line algorithm.
  • (1998) by and features (almost) real time non-photorealistic rendering of implicit surfaces in a sketchy style. See also (1998, (6.3MB Postscript))
  • (1999, 2.8MB compressesed Postscript) by . Uses extensive preprocessing to provide display of polynomial and rational surfaces at interactive rates.
  • (1999) by , , , and . Uses non-photorealistic lighting, silhouetting, and shadowing in an interactive environment to produce rendering of 3d models enhanced for illustrative purposes.
  • (1999) by is a high speed version of his techniques described in the Painterly Image Processing section of this page.
  • (1999) by and . Uses the principal directions of curvature to guide lines over curved 3D surface, can be rendered in real-time.
  • (1999) by . This white paper written for developers describes toon rendering techniques implemented on the GeForce 256 hardware.
  • (2000) by , Shanon Drone, Phil Smith, Don Schmidt. The page includes an abstract, sample images, and source code.
  • (2000, PDF, 0.3 MB) by describes real time cartoon and sketch rendering for use in games. See the companion article (2000, PDF, 0.3 MB). They were published in in the February and March 2000 issues of magazine. See also this with links to source code and executable for a real-time cartoon rendering demo.
  • (2000, PDF, 2.4 MB) by , , and . See also this project page: and these from a presentation at the Game Developers Conference 2000.
  • (2000, PDF 1.66 MB) by , and . Rendering subdivision surfaces of complex scenes, at interactive rates, in a variety of artistic styles using an interactively editable particle system. See also this page of .
  • (2000, PDF 713KB) by , , Charles Jacobs, , , , and . Describes a method for generating performance-driven, hand-drawn animation in real-time. Does multi-way morphs to generate real-time animation that mimics the expressions of a user.
  • (2000, PDF 0.9 MB) by and . Real time painting over successive frames of animation, applying paint only in regions where the source video is changing. Brush strokes may be warped between frames using optical flow.
  • (2000) by , , , , and . Real time walk-throughs of architectural interiors using stroke-based textures and image based rendering methods. Full paper is (PDF, 12.5 MB).
  • (2000) by , , , and modifies GLQuake to render in several real-time stylizations. This is accomplished by intercepting the OpenGL library calls. See the Mohr and Gleicher I3D 2001 paper (below) for more details.
  • (2001) by and describes a technique for taking an existing OpenGL application and changing it to use new visual stylizations. This is done "non-invasively": without modifing the application's source code. Instead the OpenGL calls are intercepted and reinterpreted to produce stylized portrayal. The web page includes animation, additional figures and the full paper is (PDF, 0.04 MB).
  • (2001) by , , and a real-time system for non-photorealistic rendering of hatching strokes over arbitrary surfaces. Preprocessing builds a tonal art map. Hardware multitexturing blends hatch images over rendered faces, varing tone while maintaining spatial and temporal coherence. Based on The full paper is (PDF 5.75 MB).
  • (2001, PDF 0.6 MB) by uses per-pixel-shading graphics hardware to implement non-photorealistic shading with hatching textures. There are links to slides and movies on the author's page.

Interactive Techniques

  • (1990) by (full paper is (PDF 7.4 MB) but requires ACM Digital Library access). Describes interactive "over-painting" of an image with a shaped color-sampling brush. For an interactive sample, visit Paul's applet. (This techniques is now available in commercial software such as and )
  • (1994) Michael P. Salisbury , and .
  • is a commercially available system which allows interactive post processing of rendered 3d scenes (with z-buffer data) to achieve various artistic styles. See this . Originally Piranesi was an academic project, see; : the Piranesi system, see its , and the paper (1995) by and and (1997) by .
  • (formerly ThinkFish LiveStyles)
  • by , and . Creating 3d virtual environments from hand-drawn 2D input. 3D objects are made of planar strokes, reoriented for camera motion. The page includes an abstract, the full (PDF, 845KB) and a video demonstration.
  • (2001) by , , , and describes an interactive drawing system in which the user draws abstract strokes over a reference photograph. The system has high level controls to select various stylizations which are displayed in real time. Sample images and the full paper is (PDF 3.3 MB).
  • (2002) by , , , , , , , and . Allows the user to paint brush strokes directly on the surface of a 3d model. Silhoutte and hatching strokes are identified. The number and placement of hatching strokes is adjusted as the model is rendered. Silhouette strokes in a similar style are synthesized for newly exposed object edges. The project page contains the (PDF 2.5MB), movies and still images.
  • (2002, PDF 16MB) by and , uses image segmentation to identify objects in the image as regions of pixels. The objects can then be "scaled, stretched, bent, warped or even deleted."

3D Modeling Based on 2D Sketch Input

  • a sketch-based 3D modeling system (1999) by , and , uses a fast sketch renderer. See the paper (PDF, 650KB) and the .
  • (1999) by , , and . Describes a 2D sketching program which incorporates a simple representation of 3D space, essentially providing a panoramic sketchpad. See also this (4.24 MB) version of the paper, and this .
  • (2000) a commercial sketch-based 3D design system. Infers 3D architectural forms from sketched input. Free demo version . See this and these animated of the system.

Toon Shaders/Plug-Ins (and related "cel-look" effects)

  • (1998, Application Note #24) includes exampled of "cel-like", "painted-like", and "pen and ink" rendering styles.
  • (1996) by
  • (1997, for RenderMan) by
  • for by . This is one of the more widely used toon rendering plug-ins. The site contains sample images, tutorials, and other articles.
  • (for PowerAnimator) by
  • tests (still and animated) by for a client called Ideal Entertainment.
  • (for LightWave 3D) and a at the site of .
  • CartoonReyes is a shader for 3D Studio MAX. Here is a and a demo program is available. This and this apparently refer to the same system.
  • (for 3D Studio Max, see ) from .
  • toon and illustration renderer plug-in for 3D Studio Max. See this .
  • cel shading for trueSpace. See this .
  • a 3d plug-in for Animo 3, supports Cartoon Shading
  • for Ray Dream 5.02 and 5.5 (and Carrara(?)) by Eric Winemiller, see this .
  • for RenderMan ("Dang I'm tired of photorealism") by , see also this
  • a stylized rendering package for the Interactive Graphics Programming Environment from CMU's .
  • (2001) from is a plug-in for the USAnimation system and exports to Maya. It is described on this (PDF 0.05 MB)

Painterly Image Processing Techniques

  • (1993) by and (full paper is (PDF 1.5 MB) but requires ACM Digital Library access). Primarily used for visualizing 2 and 3 dimensional vector fields, the LIC technique operates by distorting texture maps along streamlines of the vector field. It can be used to produce a "wind-blown wet paint" version of a source image.
  • (1997) by , simulating the paintings of the aboriginal Australian.
  • (1997) by (full text in format (3.5 MB), requires ACM Digital Library access, as does this description of, and image from, Pete's animation ). See also this by .
  • (1998) by , full paper is (PDF 425KB). See also on an approach to process sequences of video frames.
  • by
  • by Steve Treavett (?)
  • makers of the Video GoghTM system, a simple version of their technology seen in the 1998 feature film (see also the and this page at ).
  • thesis research by : preliminary samples of photographic portrait images processed into what looks like pencil drawing. (Note: Eric graduated, Cornell removed his pages. When he sets up a new web site this link will be updated. 12-7-99)
  • by and . GIT creates juxtaposition of color (producing tones by placing small areas of several colors close to each other) in a manner suggesting the impressionist technique. See also Lim's page and his . See also this draft of a SIGGRAPH art sketch (Postscript 794KB) and a draft paper .
  • (1998) by , a gallery of several images processed into several styles (pencil, watercolour, tapestry, chalk, by numbers, etching).
  • a Photoshop plug-in from Xaos Tools for painterly image processing. See this .
  • (2001) by describes painterly image processing of still and moving images. A user-defined energy function controls the stylization. The output image is generated by searching for a collection of brush strokes with minimal energy. This approach yields good frame to frame coherence for moving images. Full paper is available in several lengths and formats including this CGI 2001 (PDF 17 MB).
  • (2001) by , , , , and describes processing images by example: learning an image transformation from one pair of before and after images, them applying the transformation to a third image to produce a fourth. The links to full paper, examples images and software.
  • by and contains images and links related to two related 2002 papers: (PDF 1.8 MB) and (PDF 1.8 MB). In this work, eye tracking technology is used to capture which areas of a photograph are most important. A stylized version of the image is created introducing line along edges and abstracted regions of constant color obtained from segmentation. Detail is concentrated in the ares deemed important during eye tracking.
  • (2002) by , , and . Describes an approach to stylizing video which treats the video as a space-time volume of image data. Stylized elements, such as brush strokes, are defined over time and space, then sampled as needed. The (PDF 1.5MB) is available online.

Simulation of Traditional Artistic Media

  • (1986) by simulates the traditional Japanese art of sumi-e by modeling the motion and bristles of the brush and the absorption of the ink into the paper. There is a brief description of Strassmann's work in (1997) by . The gist of Strassmann's work was reimplemented in 1999 as a by .
  • (1990) by (Better version available in .)
  • (1997, article requires ACM Digital Library access, is free) by and .
  • (1999, abstract) by , , , and . See the full , and these .
  • (1999) by , and Masayuki Nakajima. See also the project whose aim is to "capture the charm of colored pencil drawing."
  • (1999) by and . See also (GZipped Postscript 3MB) by the same authors.
  • (1999) and Masayuki Nakajima. A 3D physically based brush model that allows users to paint various strokes intuitively and directly on a computer with a pen-type input device.
  • (1999, PDF 19.5 MB) by and . Presents a model of graphite pencil, drawing papers, blenders and kneaded erasers that produce realistic looking pencil marks, textures and tones.
  • (2001) by converts input images to mosaics composed of shaped tiles. Uses a relaxation technique to minimize the visible grout (the area between tiles) while aligning tiles with user-specified feature boundaries. The full paper is (PDF 1.7 MB)
  • (2001) by , , and describes itself as "capturing the sight, touch, action, and feeling of painting" through interactive use of a physically based paint brush and paint model with haptic feedback providing a natural interface via simulation of traditional artists' tools. The project page includes movies and the full paper in two resolutions: (PDF 10 MB) and (PDF 0.2 MB).
  • Pastel-Like Rendering Considering the Properties of Pigments and the Support Medium (2002) by and Reiji Tsuruno. "A new NPR technique that reproduces pastel drawing-like textures by focusing especially on the attributes of pastel pigments." This SIGGRAPH sketch is apparently not online, but there is a PDF article of the same name in this .
  • Automatic Generation of Pencil Drawing Using Line-Integral Convolution (2002) by , Yoshinori Nagasaka and Atsumi Imamiy. "A new technique for automatically generating pencil drawings from 2D gray-scale images using line-integral convolution."
  • (2002) by briefly describes software to "reproduce the appearance of line drawings in both pencil and ink, along with other effects such as the bleeding of ink in water and the application of pastel to paper." (PDF, 1.5MB) is available online.


  • (1998) by Lance Williams, on shape and shading from silhouettes.
  • (1998) by uses 's sphere-mapping facilities to create novel stylized shading.
  • (1999) by and . Includes and these additional .
  • (1999, PDF 171KB) by
  • (1999) by , describes the Mental Ray contour shader. Unfortunately the illustrations from the hardcopy edition of Computer Graphics 33(1) are not included on this web page.
  • (1999, 1.07MB Postscript) MS Thesis by . See also this related earlier work:
  • (2000) by and . Describes a technique where silhouette edges are processed in image space, leading to more consistent detection and subsequent rendering. The page includes an abstract, the full (PDF, 312KB) and both still and animated sample images.
  • (2000, PDF 421 KB) by and . The edge buffer is a technique for highlighting silhouette edges, boundary edges, and artist defined edges. See also this .

Non-traditional perspective (for viewing and modeling)

  • 2MB PDF (1997) by , , Craig Thayer, and .
  • (1998 abstract) by and , the full paper is (PDF 1.4MB) Note: the applicability of this paper to non-photorealistic rendering is questionable, but it fit really well into this sub-category!
  • (1998, PDF format 604K) Master's Thesis by . This novel work explores non-photorealistic "perspective" projections.
  • (1999) by , full paper is (PDF 931KB)
  • (2000, PDF 2.4 MB) by , and . Deformations of objects and space contributes to the expressiveness of illustration. Presents use of hierarchical extended non-linear transformations as a powerful tool for obtaining such expressivity.
  • (2000) by , and describes an interactive system for creating multiprojection images where each object in the scene can have it own local camera. The project page includes images, movies and the (PDF, 14.6 MB) in several formats.
  • (2001) Master's thesis by describes an IBMR approach for making fly-through or walk-through animations from a single large multi-perspective landscape painting or panorama. This page contains links to animations, the thesis and a CGI 2001 paper by Chu and Tai: (PDF 6MB).

Stylized Motion and its Depiction

  • (1999, PDF 529KB) by , , and . See additional images in this .
  • by , , et al. See also , this page featuring stylized and this related page at .
  • (2000) by and . Stylistic motion synthesis by learning motion patterns from motion capture (or other sources). New motions can be generated from learned styles, or combinations of them. Full paper is (PDF 1.4 MB).

Scientific Visualization

  • (1996) by and . "Accurate control of streamline density is key to producing ... visualization of 2-dimensional vector fields. We introduce a technique that uses an energy function to guide the placement of streamlines at a specified density..."
  • (1999, PDF, 1.6 MB) by , and . Uses a combination of visual elements arranged in multiple layers to visually represent multivalued data. The representations are inspired by the brush strokes artists apply in layers to create an oil painting.
  • (1999) by , and compares flow visualizations using streamlines and line integral convolution (LIC), describes a methodology for flexibly generating flow visualizations that span the spectrum of streamline-like to LIC-like.
  • (1999) student project by , and portrays volumetric data sets using non-photorealistic rendering to emphasize pertinent detail.
  • (2000) by , and describes a seed placement strategy for streamlines based on flow features of 2d vector fields. Its goal is to capture flow patterns in the vicinity of critical points in the flow field.
  • Various reports from NASA's on flow visualization using LIC and diagrammatic imagery:
  • (2000) by and colors (and shades) volumetric data sets according to local operations on small voxel neighborhood. The full paper is (PDF 0.24 MB).
  • (2001) by describes a method for visualizing complex information spaces as painted images. See also his project page.
  • (2001) by this course presentation surveys a number of issues in nonphotorealistic rendering and visual perception, then discusses their relevance to computer graphics and scientific visualization through a series of descriptions, examples, and practical applications. The page contains movies, presentation slides and the full (PDF 4.1 MB).

Computer Graphic Effects for Traditional Cel Animation

  • (2000) by , , Lance Williams and . Describes a semi-automatic method for creating shadow mattes for hand-drawn characters in cel animation. Employs a scheme for inflating 2D line art to produce 3D figures. The full paper is (PDF, 3.2 MB).
  • (2002) by briefly describes a production process that allows freely intermixing traditional hand-drawn 2d character animation with toon-shaded 3d rendering. (PDF, 0.1MB) is available online.


Surveys and Overview Articles

  • (1995, abstract) by the late and in . The full article is available to those with access to the IEEE Digital Library in and formats.
  • (1997) by Barbara Robertson, CGW Magazine. (Note: Pennwell, CGW's publisher, is rebuilding their web site, so this article is temporarily unavailable.)
  • (1998, revised 1999) survey by
  • There was a focus on in the (February 1999), see this by the guest editor.
  • (1999) by (in ) an essay about non-raster image representations.
  • Lecture notes by for a 1999 course on including sections on: (PDF, 2.6MB), (PDF, 3.3MB) and (PDF, 0.9MB).
  • (2002) by brings the perspective of Art History to the analysis of stylized depiction, and proposes a classification of techniques for stylized depiction according to four criteria. Project page includes the (PDF 0.3 MB) and presentation slides. [] []


  • Conferences and conference sessions on these topics:
      • was held June 5-7, 2000 in conjunction with the Animated Film Festival of . The official require ACM Digital Library access, some of the individual papers are available from the authors, see above.
      • The (NPAR 2002) will be held June 3-5, 2002 in . See also the .
  • Research groups and project pages related to these topics:
  • Films using these techniques:
    • Teddy Ruxpin test (1985?), Digital Productions, toon shading. Plese contact if you know any details.
    • (1987) Walt Disney Pictures, all toon shaded.
      • The Toon Shading process was developed by Tad Gielow and MJ Turner. Tad says: "The process involved two renders, one for color (via Wavefront's Render) and one for plotter output (via Wavefront plot). The plotter output render was suitable for driving a pen plotter to create artwork that integrated into the traditional Ink and Paint process (used on , , , and a number of shorts). We took the plotter output and wrote a script to drive a to draw the lines. The lines images was then composited over the color render."
    • Burning Love (1988) short by Carlos Arquelos et al. at PDI. Plese contact if you know any details.
    • (1989?), deGraf/Wahrman Inc., toon shading of Bedrock (and other locales?)
    • (1992) short by Eric Darnell et al. at PDI.
    • (1994): toon shading on stampeding wildebeests
    • (1995) short by et al. at PDI.
    • (1997): toon shading for the Hydras
    • (1997) short by .
    • (1998): painterly rendering for Chris' Paradise
    • (1998): toon shading for the Hun cavalry charge.
    • (1998): toon shading on props and "extras" in crowd scenes
    • (1998) short by
    • (1999) short by Matt and Dan O'Donnell (), all toon shaded.
    • (1999): toon shading of the giant
    • (1999): deep canvas 3d painterly backgrounds
    • (1999) short by David Gainey et al. at PDI.
    • (2000) short by Matt and Dan O'Donnell (), all toon shaded.
    • (2000 and 2001) cel shaded bumpers by , see video at their site from and (MPEG, 1.6MB). (MPEG, 5.7MB).
    • (2001): ...will contain toon rendering, say informed sources...
    • (2001) by and . Produced at Supinfocom, won the Jury Award at SIGGRAPH 2002. See especially this of images from the film. See also this in .
    • (2001) by Justine Bonnard et al. stylized as an acrylic painting ().
    • (2002, QuickTime, 3.8MB, 60 seconds) cel shaded TV spot for Volkswagen by . Video is available on this page of , at and at Psyop's . Their site also has two other NPR VW spots: (MPEG, 7.8MB) and (MPEG, 3.5MB).
    • by (2002)
    • ...
  • Real-time interactive systems using these techniques:
    • (2001) used a real time "charcoal rendering" technique.
      • See this page with pictures (PDF, 0.1MB). This paper describes the AlphaWolf project: (2002, PDF, 3MB) by , , , , Derek Lyons, Jennie Cochran and . See a brief video of (MPEG video, 7.2MB) from SIGGRAPH Online.
  • , a glossary by .
  • (1995) by and . See also the first authors' page on
  • The book (1998) by et al. explores abstraction in computer graphics. It discusses non-photorealistic animation, non-traditional perspective, and other topics of interest to readers of this page.
  • (1993) by . See also this of the book. Now Scott has published a companion volume: (2000).
  • from SGI. See also their article about .
  • "animation that integrates traditional and computer generated techniques"
  • is a small independent animation production company that specializes in toon-style films. Their propietary software is called Mexico.

Not yet categorized

  • (1995) by Peter Hall. []
  • Computer Drafting of Stones, Wood, Plant and Ground Materials (1979) by Chris Yessios in Computer Graphics 13(3) SIGGRAPH '79 Proceedings, pages 190-198.
  • (1997?) by and Michael Crumpton. See more about
  • (1999) by and , full paper is (compressed Postscript 1.6 MB). A preliminary investigation into an automatic rendering system based on a model of cognitive information processing
  • (2000, Postscript 3MB) by and . Java-based, realtime animation of nonrealistic 2d cartoon faces. See also these (Postscript 9.7MB) from the paper, and the project page.
  • describes a image processing service offered by . They scan old animation and "de-construct" it into line art backgrounds and overlays, allowing it to be reprocessed and recomposited.
  • (2000, PDF 1.6 MB) by and
  • (2002 v1n2) in . Note: I cannot display these articles, perhaps the PDF files do not contain font data?

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