Native American Indian figurines believed to be medicine men or shaman statuettes were found near Ice Age arrowheads. Kokopelli Dream Catchers for sale.
Updated with New Stuff: 12/10/2017
In this Chapter:
Homo antiquus rufus
In April of 2011, I was walking along a swathe of washed-down cornfield at site 2601A - about 50 feet east of where I discovered our first figurine. As I turn to look to my left, 15 feet away, there was an ancient face looking up at me. There are no tooling or impact marks on this stone, signifying it was saved by ancient Indian for its appearance, not utility. Red jasper, 1 part. 5.0”h; 935 gm. Very Special Price: 76
Transcendent Peace from Below. There is a difference between religion and spirituality: Spirituality is hard. It is man’s curse and salvation to resolve the question of existence – to perimeter the vast, endless nature of consciousness - and free ourselves from ourselves. As far back as genetic memory spans we've strived to comprehend the universe and how we fit into it. Now, most of us are caught-up in the modern notion of how to fit it into us. It's because of this modern shift in perspective that Shamanism is often mistaken to be based upon the simplistic rite of Native American Indian medicine men getting jacked-up on hallucinogens to find the answer outside and separate from himself.
Medicine women of the Stone Age were probably more the rule than the exception. Large breasted and chanting a sacred chord, this little figure has an ancient surface heavy with dimples and cracks yet the overall figure is silky smooth to the touch. Caramel jasper, 3 parts. 4.1”h; 373 gm
But such drugs taken without mindfulness training and the guidance of a trusted elder will cause more confusion than clarity and bury us ever deeper into our thinking "monkey mind". More likely, the ancient Native American Indian medicine man could alter consciousness at will. He (or she) would courageously spend days alone out on the desert or retreat into the vast wilderness without food, water or weapons. His main tool was probably his meditation technique given to him by his elder. The medicine man (most likely medicine women) would then either awaken from the dream of self-centeredness or have a vision that would be of great import to the people of his (her) clan.
Kneeling with hair tied into side-buns, this strong female image most certainly appealed to many Stone Age men just as it appeals to many modern men today. The mother principle has a powerful healing effect so this was probably representative of a medicine woman. Likely a tool kit: Head, worn smooth from use, may have been a pecking stone for chipping flint; breasts a hammer; hips an anvil. Hard purplish hornblende, 3 parts. 7.0"h; 1220 gm 5
Practiced by just a few selected Yaqui Indians of Sonora Mexico today and the Ural-Altaic peoples of northern Asia and Europe just a few hundred years ago, shamanism was also the ancient religion of Native Americans. Though the majority of Native Americans are offended by the word "shaman / shamanism" when used within the context of their religion, the similarities between their belief systems and shamanism proper are uncanny.
Homo sibilo ventus
This fellow has an amazing stacking form: The torso stone,though pointed and smooth at its bottom, fits into a natural pit into the lap stone of the cross-legged figure. It is very stable. Carmel jasper, 6.75" h; 928 gm.
SOLD to Richard
Thanks so very for the stacking photos! That was certainly a surprise! The statues defy gravity & time for that matter. It's unbelievable that these figurines were made when camels (favorite), horses, lions etc. roamed America. Richard, OH
Generally, shamanism is a world-scale faith of diverse sects and various practices. It has roots deep into the last ice age 40,000 years ago and possibly deeper into Africa, the cradle of man, hundreds of thousands of years ago. Its essence is the core of many global tribal systems even today. It was most likely also practiced by the Spoon River Illinois Ice Age Indian.
Homo feis vacuus
An old popular Zen puzzle or Koan asks "What was your face before you were born?" The contemplation of such a seemingly nonsensical question yields an expression upon ones face that looks much like that of a Buddha's - and the experience to match. This priceless dark green figurine has graced my meditation room bookshelf for 6 years without toppling. This was also the first figurine that I officially catalogued in our collection. Green olivine quartzite w green schist head, 3 parts. 4.5"h; 467 gm.
SOLD to Richard
I feel very fortunate since your collection is really priceless! I know that you hate to break up your collection but at least others will be able to share in some of the Ice Age history of Illinois. I don't think there is another collection in the world like yours. Richard, OH
"Although a shaman can achieve religious status by heredity, personal quest, or vocation, the recognition and call of the individual is always an essential part of that individual's elevation to the new status. The shaman, usually a man, is essentially a medium, a mouthpiece of the spirits who became his familiars at his initiation, during which he frequently undergoes prolonged fasts, seclusion, and other ordeals leading to dreams and visions. Training by experienced shamans follows." 
Femella luna vocalis
This figure, shown in side view facing the viewer's left, is made of a rare and beautiful blue/pearly white chalcedony. Her hair, forms a crescent pitted moon. Her mouth is open as if signing and she is seated cross-legged with her hands on her knees. She is a bit tricky to stack so once we found the "sweet spot", we stacked wet with a high alkali-content water (like the Spoon River) which, when dry, forms a light removable bond. Blue and pearly white chalcedony, 2 parts. 4.5”h; 409 gm 5
"The main religious tasks of a shaman are healing and divination. Both are achieved either by spirit possession or by the departure of the shaman's soul to heaven or to the underworld. Shamans also divine the whereabouts of game, the position of the enemy, and the best way of safeguarding and increasing the food supply. Shamans may occupy an elevated social and economic position, especially if they are successful healers." 
Femina stagnum amethystus
Much of North America and Canada were covered by lakes from the retreating Ice Sheet when these figurines became art. This sensual, semi-precious amethyst female figurine invokes a passion within, yet her placid, empty face reminds one of a calm lake. The breast stone, though not the same material as the head and base, is of near identical coloration and was worked by the ancient artisan - it was cleaved across the bottom to fit nicely onto the base - but has no sharp edges, attesting to its great age. Particularly beautiful when wetted in bright sunlight (but glares when photographed wet). Rare amethyst metaquartzite head and hips, hornblende breast, 3 parts. 5.0"h; 1020 gm 99
Shamanism is based on an unseen universe of gods, demons, and ancestral spirits responsive only to shamans or Native American Indian medicine men. The medicine man (or medicine woman) is a priest who uses magic to cure the sick, divine the hidden, and control events. Paleolithic Indians undoubtedly carried these beliefs from Asia and possibly Europe when they immigrated to the Americas. And indeed, in many parts of China the worship of ancestral spirits is still practiced. The ancient sect of Bön shamanism in Tibet still flourishing today, but with a strong Buddhist flavor, reflects just how widespread and adaptable this religion has been. This is why the figurines representing medicine men hold a special place in our collection.
This figure consists of 3 different type of stone of similar blonde color but were recovered together. Her face is stained with iron oxide rust from the Illinois soil. Granite base, quartzite breasts, metaquartzite head - 3 parts. 6.13”h; 1726 gm 76
There is strong evidence that meditation was practiced either by the shaman alone or by other members of the clan as well. “No one knows precisely when meditation began, but experts think it could have been practiced by hunter-gatherers many thousands of years ago. Like many other mystical practices, it might have been reserved for tribal shamans, who were believed to be in direct touch with the invisible spirits.”
The Native American nomads of the Midwestern Plains did not have chairs or convenient rocks to sit on, so everyone sat on the ground, usually cross-legged. These people were already in the meditation position. So it's reasonable to assume shamanism may have been the first mystic tradition involving meditation alone to still the mind and expand ones view in order to develop wisdom - or an ontological cosmology that works within that particular society.
Homo Reses fumeus
Like a column of rising dense smoke on a cold morning, this figure also sits solid and unmovable: The warrior is imposing yet yielding. His square jaw and massive torso suggest a great hunter or warrior tempered by battle with large prey or the enemy. Yet he is aware that the world is an illusion like the clouds in the sky, the fog across a morning meadow, or a column of smoke on a cold dawn. The base stone has layers adding to the figure's heavy smoke-like quality. Light tan and gray smoky metaquartzite, 3 parts. 6.3”h; 1245 gm 25
To me, these figurines are evidence meditation as practiced by the River Owl, or by their medicine men. Meditation in the truest sense of the word is an empirical experience. Since writing was undeveloped during this time, and language was probably limited, much communication may have occurred through bodily expressions and sensations. (Up until recently, many historic Native American Indians expressed themselves with their hands and arms while they spoke.) Our body is the hub of the universe, though not the center - without the wheel there can be no hub. In the meditative traditions of Japanese Zen Buddhism and Tibetan Tantra, emphasis is placed on living in the body (the hub) as opposed to the modern way of living in the head (the "center"). We humans used to live in our bodies.
Sitting tall and dignified, this slender elder has the air of experience and utter calm. The body stone by itself resembles a free-standing Morel mushroom, which is a springtime delicacy in these parts (and often sells in Chicago restaurants for upwards of 0 a pound) and likely considered as medicinal by the clan as it is was in ancient Chinese medicine. But it's the overall impression of the figure that will make you stop and look over and over again. Honey/caramel swirl jasper w crystal fossil bone-like crinoid stem segments (Indian beads), 3 parts. 7.3”h; 1180 gm 5
Quite simply put, Paleolithic man may have been much more intuitive and sensitive 13,000 years ago. There was little random thinking to short-circuit the senses. He had little to think about other than survival so he must have felt much more in-touch with his environment than we do with ours today. After all, one cannot stay alert for danger in the wilderness if one is tied-up in thought. With iPods and Net Phones occupying 3 of our 5 senses while we walk down the street, it's little wonder more of us aren't grill work for city buses: If early man had been caught-up in as much discursive thought as we are today, our species would have long gone extinct.
When we found them, we thought these stones to be just a collection of tools, but they stack up to make this female figure of icy qualities. Composed of beautiful white crystal-fossil flint – with three sparkling quartz crystal clusters on the viewer’s side of her hips – make up this tool kit: Her head is a steak knife also used for skinning; her breast (wrapped together as some modern women do today with bras) is a hide-scraper and pick; and the body was a bone hammer and nut anvil. The original handy-dandy "Kitchen-Aid"! White crystal-fossil flint. Tool kit, 3 parts. 4.3”h; 394 gm 0
Was this peaceful society a collection of enlightened beings or were medicine men and their apprentices the only ones permitted to practice meditation? We may never answer that question. Is it coincidence these stones are in the sitting position or is it because they stack more easily than standing figures?
A Karok Medicine Woman
In past Native American Indian cultures, the Medicine Woman (Shawoman) was probably more the rule than the exception.
We have recovered in equal numbers both male and female figurines in cross-legged posture. (In many ancient cultures however, women, including the Shawoman, were allowed to sit only on their knees. See and above.) Certainly medicine women existed around the globe during this time. They probably existed within the River Owl clan as well.
Fire as perceived in the phenomenal world, has a psychological counterpart in the emotion of passion. The reverse is true. Passion when properly guided back through its original channels creates the internal heat of bliss. This was one of few figures found on the Hill where the chieftain or medicine man may have lived. Her breasts, one pointed, the other smooth and rounded is like fire; Vajrayogini can pierce yet also warm you. This beautiful figurine is made from varying grades of carnelian - a rare chalcedony with fire-like coloration. Her hips are dark red with blue-gray (ash-like) near her waist, the breast is redder with yellow on top of the collarbone area and the head is a beautiful translucent red-orange-yellow stone that conducts light as if she is ablaze. The head stone (which here in the photo still has some field mud on it) has been extensively worked by the ancient artist: underneath to sit on the breast stone and on top to form her hair tied into a bun. She has a partial fossil crinoid stem forming an arc where her eye would be and composed of clear quartz crystals as if squinting. Carnelian, 3 parts. 3.8"h; 198 gm 5
All ancient Shamanistic sects had their female fire principle. For example, in Tantric Buddhism, Vajrayogini (or "fire goddess" of the ancient Bon tradition of Tibet) symbolizes the innate passion in all life (especially human life) to merge with the cosmos - the universe within and without oneself. It has no logic, which is the invention of monkey mind - that busy thinking process that enchants modern man. It burns through deception and reveals the god and goddess within - without judgment. It is a mirror that reflects good and bad, happy and sad with equal intensity and with no bias.
Homo cantio cor cordis
Singing in the wind with a heart of glass: There is a quartz crystal crinoid stem where his heart would be. This eerie fellow also appears windswept from his left side as if he chanting off into the wind. When one becomes very still, the blissful song of the inner wind is all the thought one needs. To the medicine man singing is means to communicate with all-knowing spirits. Up-welling sensations of emotional bliss accompany sincere song and tell the singer the spirits are singing back. Such overwhelming experiences also occur during the chanting of mantras. Stack wet. Honey jasper w crystal fossil crinoid-bead heart, 3 parts. 5.8”h; 678 gm 33
Medicine men were probably one of the first paid on-call professionals: hunters could rest between kills but Native American Indian medicine men (or more likely the medicine women) were always on duty. Aside from being consul to the chieftain, the local Indian medicine man was the tribal doctor. The world was still a nasty place to live in and he was there to patch you up. Medicine men worked on collecting prickly plants, illusive seeds, shady mushrooms, bear-attracting berries, suspicious insects, mossy antler, and slippery "organ stones" from the river. These would be placed in amulet pouches with other pungent herbs. He may have even polished organ stones, or had his apprentice do it. Medicine men may have had the responsibility of performing surgery and blessing special events. The medicine man was revered (and maybe even feared) so probably lived outside the edge of camp, where we find some of the more esoteric items.
Observational discipline leads to sexual potential and when channeled, culminates in enlightenment accompanied by ecstatic bliss. Green chlorite and red hematite color this ancient glacial slate figure with windswept, awe-struck expression. From its right (left photo) this weathered green figure portrays the shaman a-washed in expanding waves of pristine cognitiveness. The left angle reveals his humble, compassionate side: Upon awakening one recognizes the existential suffering of all beings. In many shamanistic societies, male sexual potency as a spiritual state of mind is symbolized with an erection: A matching 2” lingham stone long enough to reach his chin sits on the base: The promise of explosive release is just a kiss away, but one would lose the sparkling bliss. The ancient artisan extensively worked the head, cleaved the base to sit flat and skillfully worked the lingham to sit on the angled top of the base stone. From either side, this stable figure reveals the absolute perfect meditation posture required in Buddhist Tantra for sexual energy to rise unimpeded to the crown chakra. Sage-green high-quartz, Pennsylvanian Period (300 mya) banded glacial slate, orange discoloration is iron that has weathered out. Body stone has high hematite content but was not a tool. 4 parts. 5.5”h; 682 gm 78
The fringe of camp was also where the chieftain lived. Indian artifacts from a recent excavation near Jamestown, the first white man settlement in North America 400 years ago, and written accounts by John Smith details that Pocahontas's father, Chief Powhatan, had his lodge east of his subjects campsite. This corresponds with Buddhists and many other Shamanists traditions wherein the belief is that East, where the sun rises, is a sacred direction and symbolizes the awakening of the day. Indeed, the hill is east of the main campsite where a flint surgical blade and most of the esoteric (and many of the red jasper) figurines in our collection were found.
Medicine Dream: Most hunts were organized by a group of men from the clan sometimes accompanied by a young novice or apprenticed hunter. It will be his first taste of blood and a time to share in the ancient rite of joining with the animal’s spirit. It’s generally accepted that stone age man had great respect for the animals he hunted. The hunter would apologize to the animal for having taken its life so that he and his family will have life. He would then ask the animal’s spirit to go to Great Grandfather’s hunting ground and join his ancestors among the sun, moon, and stars. Animals played a major role in Paleolithic life. Many Native American and Yaqui Indian traditions suggest Paleo man may have also taken on animal spirit guides and practiced "lucid dreaming".
In global tribal societies, the man who brings rain brings wealth to his and neighboring clans. Wetted and in bright sunlight, this figure is dazzling, so just imagine when it was new out of the river over 12,000 ya. Here, much older and dry it is still eye-catching. It is composed of a mineral colored like no other that we know of - Aquamarine or a translucent teal. This figurine, like all the others, found near Ice Age arrowheads is believed to represent medicine men and is made of an unusual sea-green metaquartzite that is the color of a pending thunderstorm sky. We would like to find more of this material just for use as a semi-precious gemstone. The photos just don't do it justice. Semi-translucent aquamarine metaquartzite, 3 parts. 8.2"h; 1621 gm 75
Confidence in his belief system was important to early Paleo hunters and medicine men: Each Native American Indian medicine man identified with the animal that appeared most frequently to him in his dreams. As children we all had a nightmare, at least once, of being chased by a wild animal. It is a primal fear genetically embedded and carried for countless incarnations. Young hunters or medicine men initiates of the Paleolithic period however, may have been trained by the local senior medicine man on how to practice lucid dreaming or “Little Death” to break this chain of primal fear.
In the Tibetan Buddhist Tantric tradition, initiates would wake immediately after a dream and repeat out loud three times what he had dreamed and go back to sleep. (The modern technique is to simply jot down a few keywords, and fall back into the dream. Then write out the whole dream in a journal upon waking in the morning. After a month of this practice one will start to recognize dreams.) The initiate would try to fall back into the lucid dream without losing consciousness so that he would have volition with the events occurring in the dream. This may be accomplished by closing the eyes, but gazing outward through closed eyelids at the object that dominated the last scene in your dream. Then quietly count your out-breaths and try not to lose consciousness. A more passive but equally effective method is to observe while dreaming small details that give the dream state away such as clocks that don't tell the right time when one gives it the double-take. Or text that reads nonsensical or changes while reading. Dream signs such as re-occurring themes, objects, or people are often good triggers for dream waking. (Mine are tornadoes and the flooding Spoon River. With tornado dreams, I have come to enjoy them and prefer to remain within the dream scenario to see how it plays out: To see multiple tornadoes form and dissipate while I stand among them is truly awesome.)
In waking life, the dream mastering aspirant may have been instructed to put himself into harms way such as standing on a precipice or facing a charging animal (don’t try this at home). He would then jump into the air and shout the phrase “This is a Dream! This is a Dream!” The initiate would abstain from sex for psychic potency and repeat the above phrase softly to himself whenever he encountered a dream sign – an object or event that has also occurred frequently in his dreams. He would visit and meditate at places that are frequently in his dreams and survey the landscape reciting the mantra "This is a Dream" over and over. The modern technique is to carry a small card with the phrase "Are you dreaming?" and look at it frequently during the day.
Morpheus expergiscor perrectus
In the dimension of lucid dreaming all senses are awake while the dream goes on. And in any stratum sexual arousal equates to awareness and this potential energy equates to arousal of the space around one: Passion IS the space. His eyes and mouth are opened wide as if in that final moment before peak experience where one teeters between release and a larger embodiment of being. Containment is not the issue: Suspension in this state (Nirvana) can only be accomplished by the redirection of the bliss. On this figurine the lingham stone fits along a ridge in the Shaman's lap as if the two stones were molded together. They must have been river-ground and river-polished one-on-top-the-other: Lingham and lap rock contour each other perfectly. It is also likely the lingham was sandwiched between the lap and torso stones when this occurred. Amazingly, none of these stones show signs of being worked by man and the figure can withstand very heavy vibration – as precariously stacked as they appear. All 4 stones are from the same mother stone and probably found together by the clan in the same river eddy pocket. We stacked it wet for greatest stability. Shown dry. A truly magical set of stones. Chestnut chalcedony w high sheen, 4 parts. 4.6”h; 442 gm 55
Becoming aware while dreaming allows the medicine man initiate to eventually awake consciously within the dream with complete control over time and space – inner and outer. The apprentice would then be instructed to turn and confront the charging beast in his next nightmare. Once accomplished, all fears of any beast – asleep or awake – are subsided and that animal becomes his friend, companion, informant, and guide. In the very next lucid dream, the initiate would then supplicate his great ancestors and ask for their blessings to practice their magic.
There are three stages of dream flying: The first is prone-body flying just a foot or two above the ground. As children, many of us have experienced that. Second, one flies to tree-top heights either prone or seated but can’t stay aloft for long. Lastly, one flies standing upright and can traverse the heavens and has transcendent powers. With the latter, upon waking, the soles of ones feet may sometimes feel hot. Perhaps this is a spill-over primal memory when our ancestors walked the hot savannas and looked to the sky at birds, wishing they could fly. Or perhaps feet have a memory of their own of all the walking we have done in lifetimes past since dreaming is a primal activity.
Having awakened at the threshold of a mystical world, the practitioner would then turn himself into a famous warrior or medicine man and perform grand acts of courage and great compassion. He would then enter the realm of Complete Joy because for esoteric shamans, he who controls dreaming conquers death and rebirth. See Medicine Man waking next page.
Clan of the River Owl: Because two small owl figurines (the first, 100. Winking Owl, below) were recovered shortly after finding , we’ve named these people the River Owl clan. Since then we've found more owl figures. In early Indian folklore, owls represent wisdom and helpfulness, and have powers of prophecy. Owls were especially helpful in that they killed mice and other rodents that invaded food stores at night. Owls are also fearless - even around humans, possible making them the most bold of the raptors. Some figurines suggest the River Owl buried their dead and had domesticated dogs.
This was the second figurine found, and though not as distinctive or impressive as some of our other finds, we recognized it as an artifact none-the-less. Note the ruffled feathers on the owl's breast. This figure is made of two different grades of Carnelian - a rare orange-to-red chalcedony with translucent qualities, the head obviously of the higher quality. The head, when held up to sunlight is beautiful and was also chipped by the ancient artisan so as to stack onto the body stone. Carnelian chalcedony, 2 parts. 3.6"h; 147 gm .00
Aside from the occasional rogue male mammoth or mastodon, they also hunted deer, elk and bison. Younger hunters brought in rabbit, beaver, turkey and the now endangered prairie chicken. Eventually they became increasingly dependent on fish, frogs, mussels, clams, crawfish, turtles and their eggs. They foraged for plants, roots, berries, nuts, mushrooms and herbs – both edible and medicinal.
They may have had organized medicine, probably based on symbolic association such as homeopathy (which has been proven quite effective in past and present cultures) and practiced by the local shaman: Many “organ” stones (river-polished pebbles shaped like human organs with appropriate colors) were found just feet from projectile points indicating they too, are ancient Pre-Columbian Native American Indian art antiquities. Stones representing the brain (usually white, oblong geodes with nicks exposing sparkling crystals), heart, lung, liver, kidney, bladder, and even a milky quartz tooth-shaped stone were recovered.
Noctua oculatus sidereus
The medicine man was often represented or depicted with the nocturnal owl. Here, you can see where the Owl's mouth was chipped out by the ancient artisan. The color is washed out a bit by the flash in the larger photo, but the "eyes" view depict the actual color of this Native American Indian medicine man figurine. (Also see ) Note sparkling clear quartz crystals in the Owls' "eyes". One of the largest figures we've recovered yet, and a spooky one indeed. 3 parts. 9.0"H;3106 gm 5
Sympathetic magic also may have been practiced to enhance the five senses. Organ stones of the nose, tongue and finger (touch) were also found. (The eye and ear have yet to be recovered.) Such stones may have been steeped with an herbal tea then drank, or worn with aromatic herbs and flowers in a talisman bag around the neck by the afflicted. We found mushroom-shaped jasper stones, some are collapsed geodes, but one was worked. Most rare, a red flint surgical-like blade was also found in the immediate vicinity of these ancient Pre-Columbian Native American Indian art antiquities.
Top Row: 3 Brains, center one has exposed crystals
Second Row: 2 Lungs; 2 Hearts (Because of the beauty of the stone, second heart was polished by author - before we realized what we had found)
Third Row: Liver ("accidentally" polished by author); Small Intestines; 2 kidneys
Forth Row: Liver; Large Intestines; 2 Kidneys
Medicine stones also hint at the behavior of these people: Some of these ancient Pre-Columbian Native American Indian art antiquities suggests thunderbird worship (or appeasement). In summer months though, life was good for these people - working only 8 hours a week - as fish, game and edible plants were bountiful. It was a lost Eden.
The Sense of Taste tells us if food is good or bad and other details about the world. For example, some Chinese and Tibetan shamanistic practices even today use the tasting of urine to determine another's health such as sweet (diabetes) too salty (dehydration) sour (infection) and bitter (cancer) etc. And, of course, the tongue is instrumental in speech. This eerie life-sized red jasper tongue is smooth and unbroken on all sides.
The Sense of Smell must have been important to the Stone Age hunter. Twice life-size.
Much of the River Owl’s ancient art conveys an appreciation of nature’s grandeur. Some of these figurines present profound philosophical concepts. Others reflect deep spiritual meaning. Still other pieces are comic or just plain cute. Some are morbid, stoic or imposing.
This flint scalpel's leading edge is the arc at lower right with broken tip at upper right. The long shank suggests it was mounted into a narrow stick for delicate manipulation. It is still sharp enough to cut skin. Color not true in this photograph. This is . Length: 1.5"L
When I first happened upon this stone in 1999, I wasn't sure I wanted to pick it up, even though it appeared the flies had long finished with it. I was excited when I did pick it up because it appeared to be a meteorite. It is heavy and very hard: I cut a tiny piece from the bottom (smaller image) and sent it into an independent lab for testing. It turned out to be iron hematite. I had trouble classifying this item, and finally settled placing it under "Medicine Man" - as laughter is the best medicine - and may very well been used as such. Brown hematite 2.375” L Weight: 96 gm
Like points, these ancient Native American Indian figurines may have been a form of barter. Some of the stones contain clear quartz crystals and the artist would oftentimes chip a corner or even cleave off a sizable chunk just to reveal them. It’s possible these people believed the shiny crystals to be the rock’s life-force and thought of them as alive. Single quartz crystals were also collected and prized by the clan for jewelry or trade.
Hematite Chipper / Cleaver
Tougher than silicates, this iron hematite tool may have been used to make flint tools and points and even to work figurines. Did the River Owl prematurely start the Iron Age by use of this "virgin iron"? Even though the material is not refined like raw pig iron, this high-grade ore is made mostly of iron. Width: 3.0” Weight: 96 gm
The River Owl left behind sophisticated tools such as millstones, mortar and pestles for mixing paint and medicines, comfortable-to-hold hammers and hand axes for chopping wood and meat. Smaller ornate fossil-rich hand axes were used to break open bone for the fat-rich marrow. They used a variety of hand- and finger-held personal steak knives of beautifully colored flint, including a smoky quartz crystal knife.
This hard, naturally sharp slate ax head contains large amounts of hematite and olivine, which makes it hard enough to chop bone and gives it the remarkable iridescent blue coloration. Note areas of weathered-out iron. This has been carefully mounted in a willow handle (from a willow tree found growing on the site of recovery) and also on display in the author’s personal museum as a weapon replica. Length: 4.5” Weight: 198 gm The weapon replica is for sale -
Aside from arrowheads and spear points, high-grade hematite tools were also found near the figurine recovery site suggesting these innovative people may have prematurely started the Iron-Age with the use of "virgin' iron. The concept may not be so preposterous considering that in nearby Ohio, iron furnaces dating back 2,000 years have recently been found.
This hard, red ochre-covered, airfoil-shaped stone is heavy iron hematite. Used to chop down willow yurt poles, make flint tools, and as a weapon (it needed no working to be used as an axe). The naturally sharp edge runs lengthwise along the bottom of the photograph. Red ochre was also used as paint and dye by Paleolithic man. This stone was carefully mounted in a willow handle with wild turkey feathers and simulated bone beads and on display in the author’s personal museum. Length: 6.25” Weight: 524 gm The weapon replica is for sale -
It appears that later, Early Archaic Indians (9,500 to 8,000 BP) visited this site and employed stone sledgehammers to drive stone wedges and to pound and grind smooth the inside of dugout canoes and wooden bowls. Other canoe building tools such as awls, chisels, wedges, drills, planers and sanding stones were picked up. (As far we know this is the first documented case of canoe building tools found with early Early Archaic points, quite possibly because no one has previously looked for such stone tools. Most collectors just go for the projectile points and step over hand tools because they look like ordinary stones, until you pick one up and feel its utility. If it fits comfortably in the hand and also has an edge or blunt face for pounding, and found in the vicinity of points, it's a tool.)
Indian War Club
This hard hornblende hammer head (color not true, see "For Sale" link below) from site 2601A was painstakingly ground around its girth by the ancient artisan to be mounted into a split willow handle. The backside reveals impact chips around its circumference indicating that this indeed was a throwing hammer. Being round, it would also have been stable in flight when thrown at an assailant or prey such as rabbit. My father could disable a rabbit by throwing a modern hammer from the tractor seat while working the fields – we would eat good that night. Width: 3.675” Weight: 598.0 gr.
The nomadic River Owl would summer camp just above floodplain at site 2601.B, possibly weaving baskets and fish traps from river bottom reeds. Animal-hide wigwams built with strong, flexible willow poles made temporary but sturdy dwellings: Each season, the hides were canoed up and down rivers and re-used. Then one spring a very long time ago the clan failed to return.
Final Days of a Long Summer
The River Owl clan would summer camp just above floodplain at site 2601.B possibly weaving baskets and fish traps from river bottom reeds. Animal hide wigwams built with strong yet flexible willow sapling poles made temporary but sturdy dwellings: The hides were canoed up and down rivers and re-used. Then one spring about 10,000 years ago, the clan failed to return. See why . Graphic courtesy of Cabrillo College.
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Meditation, Joel Stein, Time Aug.4, 2003
In the Buddhist Tantric tradition, such “psychic” potency entails transforming sexual desire into spatial discrimination awareness by not acting upon the impulse – to allow the internal energies to evolve and direct them upwards through the “central channel”. This also means maintaining restraint in the presence of sexual stimuli - a "wait and see" policy.
For more on lucid dreaming, read Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming, Stephen La Berge, Ph.D. & Howard Rheingold, Ballantine Publishing Group, 1990
The End of Eden, Elin Whitney-Smith, Ph.D. www.well.com/user/elin/eden.htm
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